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Study Guide

[HLSC 1F90] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (58 pages long)


Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
HLSC 1F90
Professor
Dr.Kelli-an Lawrance
Study Guide
Final

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Brock U
HLSC 1F90
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 2 - health research
health claims abound
consumers need to be health literate
are the claims based on evidence/science?
health professionals need reliable, valid, up-to-date knowledge for effective practice
is the research well-designed?
are the results generalizable?
are there confounds or biases?
evidence based medicine/practice
evidence based medicine
the judicious use the best, current evidence in making decisions about the medical care of
the individual patient
integrates clinical expertise
takes patient desires, values, and needs into consideration
evidence based practice
an umbrella term that encompasses evidence-based practices in all health, medical and
allied health fields
clinical expertise+patient values and preferences+best standards evidence = EBP
evidence based practice
how to
evidence-based practice consists of five steps
1. ask a searchable clinical question
does the proposed treatment work?
efficacy
how well the intervention works under ideal circumstances - almost all drug trials
ex: birth control is 99% effective if she does everything right
effectiveness
how well the intervention works in real-world conditions
ex: she forgets to take it so the birth control doesn’t work as well
2. find the best evidence to answer the question
use peer-reviewed, scholarly sources to look up evidence
best evidence = studies at the highest level of evidence as possible
levels of evidence (aka hierarchy of evidence) reflect:
the methodological quality of the research design
the validity of the results
the applicability of the results to patient care
3. appraise the evidence
critical evaluation skills are necessary to navigate the evidence and identify studies that
should influence clinical decision-making and policy
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4. apply the evidence
evidence-based practice incorporates research evidence along with clinical expertise, and
takes patients’/clients’/consumers’ wants and needs into consideration
apply along with own clinical judgement
ex: if patch helps people quit smoking (is it appropriate for them? do they want to use it?)
5. evaluate the outcomes of the practice
conduct scientific studies of efficacy and effectiveness, as well as efficiency, satisfaction,
etc.
add that knowledge to the body of evidence for further refinement of evidence-based
practice
ex: patch is tested on adults, but does it work on teenagers?
evaluating the evidence
peer-reviewed, scholarly sources
levels of evidence: research designs
levels of evidence
levels of evidence: overview
the hierarchy of evidence emphasizes randomized controlled trials (RCTs) as the gold
standard
RCTs are ideal for judging treatment efficacy, but may be inappropriate for assessing other
health outcomes
levels of evidence: RCTs
RCTs emphasize the question of causality
does the treatment cause a desired outcome
ex: does the nicotine patch cause people to quit smoking?
research designs with high internal validity produce evidence of causality; RCTs have the
highest internal validity of all research designs
internal validity is present under conditions of:
temporal precedence
Y changes after X occurs
ex: they stop smoking after being on the patch
covariation of cause-and-effect
when X is present Y is present; when X is absent Y is absent
implausibility of alternate explanations
change in Y are due only to X, not to any other factor
ex: rule out any other situations why they went on the patch and wanted to quit
smoking
in RCTs, participants are randomly assigned to receive treatment or control (placebo, or no
treatment, or active control)
ex: give a patch that doesn’t have any effect
each participant has a perfectly equal chance of assignment to treatment or control group
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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