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HLSC 1F90 Study Guide - Final Guide: Falling Slowly, Infant Mortality, Environmental Health

Health Sciences
Course Code
Brent Faught
Study Guide

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CHAPTER 5: nutrition
Poor diet/inactivity #2 risk factor of death
Atwater values
o 4kcal/g for carb and protein
o 9 kcal/g for lipids
o 7 kcal/g for alcohol
VITAMINS: Fat (A, D, E, K) and water (B, C) soluble
MINERALS: Major (>100 mg/day; Calcium, Sodium, Potassium) and trace (<100mg/day; Iron, Zinc, Iodine)
Canada’s Food Guide
o Introduced in 1942, latest version released in 2007
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) - Define the amount of energy, nutrients and other dietary components
Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) - Estimate of how much is needed in the diet (50% pop)
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) same as above but cover 98% population
Estimated Energy Requirement - average dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in
healthy reference adults
Acceptable Macroonutrient Distribution Ranges- Carbs 45-65%, fat 20-35%, protein 10-35
Adequate intakes insufficient scientific evidence, so best guess approach
Tolerable Upper Intake Level max amount of nutrient that appears to be safe, toxicity
RAT READING: sustainable food systems
Americans spend only 9.5% of income on food (lowest of all developed countries)
1970: 5 beef packers controlled 25% of the market
Today: 4 beef packers control 80% of the market
CHAPTER 13: environmental health
October 2011: global population reached 7 billion
o 1 to 2 billion took 123 years
o 6 to 7 billion took 12 years
o By 2050: 9.2 billion
o By 2083: 10 billion
Growth is due to fertility and life expectancy
o Fertility rates are falling slowly, but infant mortality rates are falling quickly
o Global fertility: 4.63 now, 2.5 in 2050
o Population decreasing quickly in Europe, increasing in Asia and Africa
Most contaminants (98% bacteria, 80%+ synthetic) come from nonpoint sources
up to 90% or garbage in landfills could be diverted
extreme weather events as a result of climate change:
o In the 1970s: 2 extreme events / year, In the 1990s: 12 extreme events / year
o During 1984-93: 79,000 affected by extreme events
o During 1994-03: 578,000 affected by extreme events
CHAPTER 14: personal safety
Canada’s crime rate has been falling steadily for 2 decades, and is now at its lowest since 1973
From 2009-2010: volume of crime dropped 5%,
crime severity index fell 6% to lowest point (87.2) since 1998,
all crimes falling, sexual assault rising
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