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Final

HLSC 1F90 Study Guide - Final Guide: Immunosuppression, Apoptosis, Iatrogenesis


Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
HLSC 1F90
Professor
Dr.Kelli-an Lawrance
Study Guide
Final

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HLSCFinalExamReview
Lecture19:Understanding&ManagingStress
*Whatisstress?
Answer:Anexternallyimposedfactorthatmakesdemandsontheindividual’smindorbody
Burnout:consistentfeelingsofoverload,frustrationanddisappointmentcausingphysicaland
mentalexhaustion
Stress
Anexternallyimposedfactorthatmakesdemandsontheindividual’smindorbody;the
mentalandphysicalresponsesofthemindandbodytothesedemands
Theindividual’sownthoughtsandperceptionsdeterminewhethera
demand/situation/eventisstressful
thesamesituationcanevokedifferentlevelsofstressfordifferentindividuals
Stressors
Thosephysical,socialormentaldemands/situations/eventsthatevokestressbyforcing
theindividualtorespondandadapt
Stressorscanbe‘positive’or‘negative’
positivestress=eustress(e.g.startinganewjob)
negativestress=distress(e.g.illness)
*TheGeneralAdaptationSyndromeisapatternofphysiologicalandpsychologicalresponsesto
stressconsistingofthreestages:alarm,_______,exhaustion
Answer:resistance
GeneralAdaptationSyndrome

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GASinvolvesthreestages
Stage1:Alarm
characterizedbysurprise/anxietyarisingfromastressor
theautonomicnervoussystemactivates
partofthecentralnervoussystem
regulatesbodyfunctionsuchasheartrate,respiration,glandularfunction
comprisedofsympatheticnervoussystemandparasympatheticnervous
system
immediatereaction:
hypothalamusstimulatesadrenalglandstoreleaseepinephrine
epinephrine→
higherheartrate
greaterbloodvolume
faster&deeperrespiration
greatermuscularstrength
bettervisual&auditoryacuity
longtermreactions
hypothalamusstimulatespituitaryglandtoreleaseadrenocorticotropic
hormone(ACTH)whichtriggersreleaseofcortisol
cortisol→
releaseofstorednutrients(tomeetbodilydemands)
sustainedreleaseofendorphins(todealwithpain)
Stage2:Resistance
characterizedbyadaptationstoefficientlycopewiththestressor
ideally,adaptationoccurs,thestressfulsituationisresolved,homeostasisis
regained
problemsarisewhentheresistancestageisprolonged,orthealarmresponseis
excessive
hyperadaptosis/adrenalmaladaptationsyndrome
whileeveryone’scapacitytoadaptisdifferent,noonehascompletelyunlimited
adaptationcapacity
Stage3:Exhaustion
characterizedbydepletionofenergyreservesandlossofcapacityforadaptation
exhaustionmayleadto:
impairmentofspecificorgansorglands
impairmentofbloodvessels 
impairmentofimmunesystem→stressinduceddiseases,andmore
debilitating,longerlastingillnesses
reasonpeoplegetcoldswhenthey’restressed
*DuringtheAlarmstageoftheGAS,animmediateresponsetostressis:
Answer:releaseofepinephrine

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Stressinuniversity
Attendinguniversityisstressfulformanyyoungadults
Atanygiventimeintheacademicyear:
75%80%aresomewhatstressed
10%12%areseverelystressed
Proportionofstudentswhoarefrequentlyoverwhelmedhaveincreased:
16%in1985
27%in2002
*Perceivedstressscale;whatisyourscore?
Answer:2935
CausesofStress
Psychosocial 
Change(goodorbad)Ex.moving,startinganewjob,illness,financial
changes,relationshipchanges,vacation
Pressure(internalorexternal)toact,look,performincertainways
Inconsistentgoalsandbehavioursdoingtheoppositeofyourgoals
Conflict:beingforcedtochoosebetween2incompatibleoptions
Overload:excessivetimepressures,excessiveburdenofresponsibility,lackof
sufficient(socialphysical,financial)support
Burnout:consistentfeelingofoverload,frustrationanddisappointmentcausing
physicalandmentalexhaustion
Environmental
Overcrowding,discrimination,poverty,poorinfrastructure
Selfimposed
SelfefficacyandFeelingsofMastery:beliefinone’sabilitytocopewith
stressors,pastsuccessindoingsoleadingtoexpectationsofcontinuedabilityto
doso
PoorSelfConcept:arisingpoorselfesteem;leadstodoubtsaboutcoping
abilities,learnedhelplessness,selfblame,selfdirectedanger,lackof
psychologicalhardiness
PsychologicalHardiness:experiencedasenseofcontrol,connectednessto
others,abilitytomeetlifechallenges,commitmenttodecisions,andperceptionof
havingchoices
Individual,Interpersonal,andInstitutional
Stresscancomefrominsidetheindividual,fromhowtheindividualdealswith
othersandfromthecontextinwhichtheindividuallives
Stressistheproductofmultiplefactorsoperatingatmultiplelevelswithinand
outsidetheindividual
Thismultilayeredcontextofhumanexperienceisdetailedinthebioecological
model
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