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Week 17 Healthy Weight Management

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Health Sciences
Madeline Law

Week 5: Healthy Weight management CHSC 1F90 04 February 2014 What’s a healthy weight? • Lots of people worry about their weight • One way to determine your healthy weight is with a chart like this o Men’s weight would generally be at higher end o Women’s weight would generally be at lower end • But a healthy weight is more than just weight to height • Over weight o Refers to a body weight greater than expected for a specific height (usually determined with a standard height – weight chart) • Obesity o An excessive accumulation of body fat beyond what’s considered healthy for a person of a certain age and sex It/ is possible to be overweight without being obese (e.g. bodybuilders with lean muscle mass), BUT body fay is usually the cause of overweight • A healthy amount of body fat for a typical young adult male is: o 11 -17 % of body mass • A healthy amount of body fat for a typical young adult female is : o 16 – 24% of body mass Fat • Lean body mass consists of muscle, bones, body organs (e.g., heart, liver, kidneys), and body water • Body fat includes essential fat and storage fat o Essential fat  Necessary for healthy physiological functioning, such as nerve conduction/ necessary for cushioning and insulation of internal organs  = 3-7% of men’s body weight/ = 15% of women’s body weight o Storage fat  Fat reserves; not essential to health Week 5: Healthy Weight management CHSC 1F90 04 February 2014  5-25% of total body weight of most Canadian adults • Too much and too little fat can both be unhealthy • Amount of body fat can be measured in many ways (see textbook!) Body mass index (BMI) • Although BMI is not actually a measure of fatness (which defines obesity), BMI is typically used to determine obesity • BMI = weight (kg)/ height (m)^2 Weight management • In theory, weight management simply requires “burning” all calories consumed o Under weight: 0-18 o Normal: 18.1-24.5 o Over weigh: 25-39.5 o Obesity: 40+ • BUT, people the same age, sex, height, weight burn calories at different due to individual difference in metabolic rates o Basal metabolic rate: energy expenditure of body at total rest at normal room temperature o Resting metabolic rate: energy expenditure during sedentary “activities” (Sitting) o Exercise metabolic: energy expenditure during physical activity • 60 % - 70% of all calories consumed support basal metabolism: heartbeat, breathing, maintaining body temperature, and so on • The remaining calories must be “burned off” through activity Factors influencing weight 1. Knowledge a. Many people don’t know – or can’t accurately assess – how many calories they consume versus how many they expend (through every day living and exercise) b. As a result, they consume more calories than they burn Week 5: Healthy Weight management CHSC 1F90 04 February 2014 Overweight, obese or healthy? A 20-ounce bottle of Gatorade has 130 calories. How long would you have to shoot hoops to burn 130 calories? 30 minutes How many calories in a chocolate-glaze timbit? 70-80 calories So is counting calories a good way to manage weight? Not necessarily. • Fasting, starvation diets, and other forms of very-low-calorie diets have been shown to cause significant health risks • Adopting a balanced “lifetime” approach to weight management and healthy eating is highly recommended 2. Heredity a. Children whose parents are obese also tend to be overweight 3. Genes & Endocrine influences a. 250+ gene markers have been linked to obesity in over 400 separate studies i. Gad2 gene: a variation in GAD2 can (up) production of a chemical that boosts appetite &signals a person to eat ii. Ob gene: seems to disrupt that body’s satiety signal so that individuals keep eating past the point of feeling full iii.Leptin: Triggers satiety signals; inhibited by lack of sleep 4. Hunger, Appetite &satiety a. Hunger, appetite and satiety are cues to eat (or to stop) that differ across individuals i. Hunger is a physiological response to nutritional needs ii. Appetite is a learn response tied to a psychological and emotional craving for food 1. researches are exploring whether obese individuals eat to satisfy appetite versus hunger iii.satiety is the feeling of fullness after eating
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