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Week 18 A look at nutrition

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Health Sciences
Madeline Law

CHSC 1F90: Nutrition Week 18 11 February 2014 February 25: Midterm Test • There is 100 m/c • 17 clicker questions from each of the 6 lectures/ chapters covered • 12-14 from textbook and 3-4 from lectures • No questions from the articles Guest speaker • Dr. Paul LeBlanc Nutrition • The science of foods and the substances they contain o How food nourishes our body o How food influences our health • Provide energy and nutrients • Used by the body for maintenance, growth, and repair • CHSC 2P91 Importance of nutrition • Nutrition is one of several factors contributing to health • Nutrition o Can prevent or reduce the risk for diseases o May be the cause of diseases o CHSC 3P93 Diseases in which nutrition plays some role • Osteoporosis • Osteoarthritis • Some forms of cancer Diseases with a strong national compant • Type 2 diabetes CHSC 1F90: Nutrition Week 18 11 February 2014 • Heart disease • High blood pressure • Obesity Disease caused by nutritional deficiencies or toxicities • Scurvy • Iron deficiency anaemia • Hyperkalaemia (too much vitamin D) Importance of nutrition (Proactive to Reactive) Primary deficiency cause by inadequate diet or secondary deficient caused bt problems inside the body • Diet history Declining nutrient stores • Laboratory tests Abnormal functions inside the body • Laboratory tests Physical (outward) signs and symptoms • Physical examination and anthropometric measures Nutrients • Diet needed to maintain health and reduce risk or diseases require a variety of foods that contain nutrients. • What are these nutrients? o Vitamins o Carbohydrates o Lipids o Minerals o Water CHSC 1F90: Nutrition Week 18 11 February 2014 o Protein Nutrient subclasses • Essential vs. nonessential • Macronutrient vs. micronutrient • Energy producing Essential & nonessential • Essential nutrients o Obtained from diet o Body can’t make or can’t make enough o E.g. water • Nonessential nutrients o Body can make in sufficient quantities o E.g. cholesterol Marconutrients and micronutrients • Macronutrients o Required in large amounts (g) o Carbohydrates o Lipids o Protein o Water • Micronutrients o Required in small amounts ( o Vitamin o Minerals • Alcohol does contain energy Energy continuing nutrients CHSC 1F90: Nutrition Week 18 11 February 2014 o Energy containing o Carbohydrates, lipids, protein, and alcohol o Non-energy containing o Vitamins, minerals, and water Energy o Capacity to do work o Expressed in units of kilocalories (kcal) o Amount of energy (heat) required to raise kg (1L) of water by 1C at sea level. Energy scale o Carbohydrates o 4 kcal per gram o Lipds o 9kcal per gram o Protein o 4kcal per gram o Alcohol o f7 kcal per gram Carbohydrates Major dietary sources are o Major dietary sources are o Sugars (mono- and disaccharides) o Starch (digestible polysaccharide) o Fibre (nondigestible polysaccharide) o Simplest unit is glucose (considered essential) Lipids o Major dietary source are CHSC 1F90: Nutrition Week 18 11 February 2014 o fats (animals triglycerides) o oils (plants triglycerides) o cholesterol (sterol) o simplest unit is a fatty acid (two are considered essential) Protein o major dietary sources are o animal o plants o simplest unit is an amino acid (9 are essential) Vitamins o subdivided into fat- and water-soluble (all 13 are essential) o vulnerable to destruction (e.g. light, radiation, heat) o Blood Health (K & E) o Bone Health (A & D) o Metabolism (B & C ) Minerals o Subdivided into major (>100mg/day) and trace (<100mg/day) o 16 which are all essential o Blood Health ( Fe, Na, K ) o Bone Heath ( Ca, Mg, P ) o Metabolism ( Zn, Cu, Mn ) Water o is a NUTRIENT and ESSENTIAL o supports many body functions o regulates body temperature o protects body organs and tissues o
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