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Managing Stress Week 14

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Health Sciences
Madeline Law

Health Sciences Week 14: Managing Stress 14 January 2014 Quiz will be on stress management *tomorrow* Tobacco use will now be on midterm test and the healthy sexuality will be on the final test Read chapter 3 for managing stress Lecture overview: • Definitions & models of stress • Sources of stress Defining stress • Attending university is stressful for many young adults • At any given time in the academic year: o 75%-80% are somewhat stressed o 10%-12% are severely stressed • Proportions of students who are frequently overwhelmed have increased o 16% in 1985 o 27% in 2002 Definitions Stress: an externally imposed factor that makes demands on the individuals mind and body; it’s the mental and physical response of the mind and the body to these demands • Individuals own thoughts and perceptions determine whether a demand/ situation/ event is stressful o The same a demand/ situation/ event may evoke different levels of stress for different individuals An example of this would be of her making a clap out of nowhere and then scaring us or she can make us visualize were at the corner STRESSORS: those physical, social or mental demands/ situations. Events that evoke stress by forcing the individual to respond and adapt • Stressors can be “positive” or “negative” o Positive stress = eustress (e.g. vacation) Health Sciences Week 14: Managing Stress 14 January 2014 o Negative stress = distress (e.g. illness) o Some people go on a vacation and come back and say oh I need to go on a vacation for going ona vacation because whne they went on a vacation it wasn’t really vacation. General Adaptation Syndrome (seyle, 1936) The curve goes…. • Homeostasis – Stressor (stress levels rise) – successful coping –return to homeostasis • When inability to cope with stress they go • Homeostasis – Stressor (stress levels rise) – inability to reduce stress and then exhaustion when goes down even below homeostasis. • The 3 stages are… Alarm, resistance, exhaustion The GAS involved three progressive stages STAGE 1: ALARM • Characterized by surprise/ anxiety arising from the stressor • Autonomic nervous system (ANS) activates • Part of the central nervous system • Regulates body functions such as heart rate, respiration, glandular functions • Comprised of the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system o (The hypothalamus stimulates adrenal glands to release epinephrine (aka adrenaline) Epinephrine  • -heart rate • Greater blood volume • Faster &deeper respiration • Greater muscle strength • Better visual & auditory activity Health Sciences Week 14: Managing Stress 14 January 2014 Longer term reaction: hypothalamus stimulate pituitary glands to release adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), which triggers release of cortisol Cortisol  • Release of stored nutrients (to meet bodily demands) • Sustained release of endorphins (to deal with pain) STAGE 2: RESISTANCE • Characterized by adaptations to efficiently cope with the stressor • Ideally, adaption occurs, the stressful situation is resolved, homeostasis is regained • Problems arise when the resistance stage is prolonged, or the alarm response is excessive • Hyperadaptosis. Adrenal maladaptation syndrome • While everyone’s capacity to adapt is different, no one has completely unlimited adaption capacity STAGE 3: EXHAUSTION • Characterized by depletion or energy reserves and loss of capacity for adaptation • Exhaustion may lead to: o Impairment of specific organs or glands (heart and adrenal glands) o Impairment of blood vessels o Impairment of immune system  stress –induced diseases and more serious, longer lasting illness Causes of stress • From your textbook…. • Psychosocial o Change (good or bad) –examples: moving, starting a new job, illness, financial changes, relationships changes, vacations o Mino hassles o Pressure (internal or external) to act, look, perform in certain ways Health Sciences Week 14: Managing Stress 14 January 2014 o Inconsistent goals and behaviours o Conflict: being forced to choose between 2 incompatible options o Overload: excessive time pressures, excessive burden of responsibility, lack of sufficient (social, physical, financial)support o Overcrowding (humans and animals) o Discrimination o Poverty • Self-imposed o Poor self-concept arising from poor self-esteem leads to doubts about abilities to cope, self-blame, learned helplessness, self-directed anger, lack of psychological hardiness o Self-efficacy and Feelings of mastery: belief in one’s ability to cope with stressors, past successes in doing so leading to expectations of continued ability to do so. Individual, Interpersonal and Institutional • Stress can come from inside the individual, from how the individual deals with others, and from the context in which the individual lives • Stress is the product of multiple factors operations at multiple levels within the outside the individual • This multi-layered context of human experience is detailed in a well-known health and developmental psychology theory: bio-ecological model • Bio-ecological model: is something that is very important that should be understood by everyone. Bio-ecological model (GET PICTURE FROM AZAAN) Individual (in the middle)  Microsystem - (people who we go to school with, church groups, people right there that are highly connected to you, the people who you can reach to right away) Mesosystem – (how you interact with your family, how you interact with your school and how they all interact with yourself) Exosystem – (the environment that is external to you that may
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