ITIS 2P91 Midterm Study Notes.docx

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Information Technology Information Systems
Susan Sproule

ITIS 2P91 Midterm Study Notes Chapter 1 – Introduction to Information Systems  Homo Conexus  Most connected generation in history  Practice continuous computing  Surrounded by a personal, movable information network  Informed User  Benefits of being an informed user:  You will understand what is behind organization’s IT applications  You will be in a position to enhance quality of IT applications  Some of the largest companies in the world are IT companies  If self-employed, you are your own IT department  Offers career opportunities  Managing Information Systems (MIS)  Supports all other functional areas in organizations  Provides information that all other areas need to make decisions  MIS personnel must think “business needs” first and “technology” second  Traditional functions  Manage system development  Systems project management  Consultative functions  Create business alliances with business partners  Computer-Based Information Systems  Information system that uses computer technology to perform some or all of its intended tasks  Components:  Hardware • Processor, monitor, keyboard or printer  Software • Program or collection of programs that enable hardware to process data  Database • Collection of related files or tables containing data  Network • A connecting system that permits different computers to share resources  Procedures • Set of instructions about how to combine the above components  People • Individuals who use hardware and software, interface with it, or use its output  An application (app) is a computer program designed to support a specific task or business process.  Information systems allow knowledge workers to develop documents, schedule resources, and communicate.  How does IT impact organizations?  Reduces number of middle managers  Changes the manager’s job  Less time to make decisions (real-time information)  Provides tools like search engines and intranets to help handle the volumes of info  May eliminate jobs  Impacts employees at work  Impacts employees’ health and safety  Provides opportunities for people with disabilities  Importance of Information Systems to Society  Affects our quality of life  Can work 24 hours a day in any location  Flexibility can improve the quality of leisure time  However, employees are on “constant call”  Robot revolution on the way  Quasi-autonomous devices have become increasingly common in factories, hospitals, farms and homes  Telepresence robots are a recent development  Improvements in healthcare  Better and faster diagnoses  Can monitor patients more accurately  Streamlined process of researching and developing new drugs  Surgical robots for long-distance surgery Chapter 2 – Organizational Strategy, Competitive Advantage and Information Systems  Business Processes  A collection of related activities that produce a product or service of value to the organization, its business partners, and/or its customers  Functional processes:  Accounting  Finance  Marketing  Human Resources, etc.  Cross-functional processes:  No single functional area is responsible for their execution  Multiple functional areas collaborate to perform the process  Business Process Reengineering and Business Process Management  Business process reengineering  A strategy for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of an organization’s business processes  Many organizations found too difficult, too radical, and too comprehensive – the impact was overwhelming  Business process management  Management technique that includes methods and tools to support the design,
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