INTC 1F90 exam review nov 15th.doc

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Intercultural Studies
Jeff Reichheld

EXAM REVIEW: The Platinum Rule • Two weeks ago I ended with the platinum rule: do unto others as they would have you do unto them. • Throughout the term, we’ve discussed what culture is, and ways that it can be interpreted -top down -bottom up -inside (emic) -outside (etic) culture specific and culture general (know the definition of these words) • Culture is not a unified whole -heterogeneity- individual variability within a relatively consistent group of people • Culture is learned and not innate -symbols are arbitrary and so are people’s responses to the problems that thy face on a daily basis • Culture is not material- its effects are material in the form of art and artifacts; actions and language • Culture is not synonymous with nation- culture is organic and fluid, often crossing national boundaries; nation is static and agreed upon, occupying a determined physical space • Culture is a learned response to lived experience, which means that it is possible to learn about culture; however, since it is a formative experience, it is impossible to fully “step into another’s shoes” A note about reality (will ask about reality in exam) • It’s not the Star Trek experience of another physical plane. The other reality exists in the alternative interpretations ascribed to the lived experience and the different existence that this creates THE EXAM: Friday Dec. 7 – 9am to 12pm Beddis Gym (New Gym) Do not bring a bag Format: • 3 hours • 50% multiple choice, true/false • 20% short answer questions • 30% long answer (short essay) Week 1: The world is seeing a significant shift in the way that cultures interact Cultural isolation is becoming cultural integration Week 2: Introduction to Intercultural Communication and The Stranger • Definitions of culture throughout the term are varied and contextual Culture can be described as the accumulated efforts of a distinct group of people. • Culture is abstract and seen as artifacts and actions- it is not directly observable in itself. -Language; religion; art; stories and mythology; technology; social relations (including war); politics; geography (the built environment); economy • As McLuhan predicted, the world is increasingly interconnected in many significant ways: -technologically -economically -socially -informationally (talk about his theory) Georg Simmel :The Stranger The stranger is thus being discussed here as not […] the wanderer who comes today and goes tomorrow, but rather as the person who comes today and stays tomorrow. He is […] the potential wanderer [who] has not quite overcome the freedom of coming and going (p. 402) Simmel’s Stranger • Physically close • Culturally distant • Creates tension that is productive and revealing • Objective • Trader • Confidence • Outsider • Ability/threat to leav The strangers Influence/Identity • “Outsiderness” reinforces group cohesion • Critical/objecive/revealing • Unpredictable (because unknown) • Visible Week 3: Communication and Grand Narrative • Communication I “a symbolic, interpretive, transactional, contextual process in which people create shared meanings” (p. 13). NEED TO KNOW THIS!! • Symbol is arbitrary and conventional • Complex of symbols creates message • Interpretive: since symbolic (arbitrary) agreed on meaning must be recovered • Transactional: bidirectional, ongoing process both communicative situation • Process: ongoing, requires work/effort; meaning is built for each interaction • Shared meaning: meaning is not absolute, but contained in the message/interaction Grand Narrative • A grand narrative or meta-narrative is a group’s accepted narrative or story of its history • Positive-elides negative aspects of history/ identity • Artistic/sy
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