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[LING 1P92] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 32 pages long Study Guide!Premium

32 pages101 viewsFall 2016

Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LING 1P92
Professor
Lynn Dempsey
Study Guide
Final

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Brock U
LING 1P92
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Pg3
-It’s comm (sounds, bees dance, etc), but is it lang?
FEATURES OF LANG
Language is:
Communicative: transfer info bw people, directed at others, influential, *intentional* (it may not
be bird’s deliberate intent to pass on info, whereas people mean to say things), talk about things
that are displaced in time and space (past, present, future, ideas—things that don’t exist)
Arbitrary: No resemblance bw word (the symbol) and its referent (thing it stands for) ex: the
word “dog” doesn’t look like dog—just accept words bc of socialization; also allows us to talk
about abstract things like love, peace, justice, etc (because those words don’t look like what they
mean)
-Plato believed name of object is part of its essential being *didn’t believe words are arbitrary
Structured: Lang has pattern based on rules which determine how sounds can be combined into
words, words into sentences, sentences into discourse; human lang is structured/rule governed
Multilayered (Hierarchal Structure in book): All messages divisible into smaller units of analysis
(paras into sent, sent into phrase, phrase into words, words into sound)
Productive: Limited set of sounds can create unlimited set of words, make limitless number of
sentences; sometimes sentences have never been said before, can constantly add to language
*Muggle was a word added to Oxford English Dictionary in 2010
Evolutionary: constantly changing and evolving (disusedrops word), add words [ex because of
pop culture, technologyGoogle it, tweet something, functionsomething happening, need
word for it, contact with other language (called loan words)]
Multimodal: Oral (through speech), manually (ASL-has 7 functions of language too),
Washoe: Could sign after training, could sign two words (exmore water, Washoe sorry, etc)
learned human language
Nim Chimpsky: Named after Noam Chomsky, “Play Me, more eat, etc”
W and N had vocab of 100-200 signs, correctly name some objects, coined new words (ex for
swan, they signed water and bird), produced sentences of 10-15 signs
Koko: (watch seminar vid)
Components of Language:
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Form:
-Phoneme (sounds that make up words)smallest speech sound unit that affects meaning;
Phonotactic Rules—sounds that can/can’t start words (ex “ng”, “bt”)
-Morphemessmallest unit of language that carries linguistic meaning;
2 types:
A. Freeroot words (word that can stand alone)
Bound: 1) Derivational: create new meaning/grammatical function (ex “un” is deriv. bc it
changes what word means “unhappy”; “ily” is too bc it changes from type of grammar (ex:
happy happily, changes it to adverb)
2)Inflectional: provides additional info about word (“s” cats, “apostrophe s” Bob’s, “ed” jumped,
“ing” jumping, comparisons “ier” “iest” happier, happiest)
Activity: Find number of morphemes: cats, ball, mom’s, untrue, jumped, unacceptable
*unacceptable: un =derivational, able = derivational, accept = free word therefore 3 morphemes
-Lexicon: All morphemes we know; vocab = all words we’ve put together using all morphemes
we know
Syntax: Rules that tell us how we can combine words into sentences
-Phrase structure rules: says what basic sentence looks like (sentence = noun phrase + verb
phrase) Bob (NP) spilled (VP) the coffee (NP)
-Transformation Rules: Rearrange units to create other sentence types
2) Content
Content words: words that identify and describe (what words mean), knowing relationship
between words, knowing multiple meanings of words (ex—“bug” has multiple meaning);
examples = house, justice, bug, etc
Function words: words that operate in the sentence to make relationships between content words
clearer (it, because, and, then the, etc)—hold content words together (smaller “glue” words)
3) Use
Pragmatics: Rules about how we use language to communicate
-Politeness: “this is so heavy” (saying that instead of saying “pls help me carry this)
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