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LING 2P72 First Half Terms to Study.docx

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Tom Farrell

Terms to Study Chapter 1-5, 7, 12 Chapter 1: Sociolinguists: concerned with the relationship between language and the context in which it is used.  Interested to explain why we speak differently in different social contexts and identifying the social functions of languages and the way it’s used to convey social meaning Linguistic Variation: used to express and reflect social factors  Boston vs. NY vs. Buffalo  Passive vs. Active Style: within each linguistic level (grammar, etc.) there is variation, which offers the speaker a choice of ways of expression Dialect: a variation of language  There are local and standard versions Variety (Code): language in context  A set of linguistic forms used in specific social contexts  Includes different accents, linguistic styles, dialects and languages Linguistic Repertoire: the language that you have available to use  There are millions of words in English, but your repertoire is the knowledge that of words you have Speech Function: how to use speech to complete a specific goal  Informing, gaining new information, etc. Domain: general concept drawing on the participants, setting and topic Social Distance: how well do you know each other Status Relationship: what kind of relationship you have Function: goal of the interaction Formality: status of the context Leakage: using language associated with specific domains (eg. work terms), rather than the language of the family domain Chapter 2: Diglossia: two distinct varieties of the same language used in the same community (H and L variety)  Each variety has specific functions  No one uses the H variety in everyday conversations  Characteristic of speech communities Polyglossia: more than two varieties/distinct codes are used for clearly distinct purposes  Different codes for different purposes  Communities regularly use more than two languages/varieties  Ex. Singapore Code Switching: switching between languages within a word or phrase  4 Reasons o Relationship: to greet or group membership signal o Topic: easier to discuss certain topics in a certain code o Affective Functions: to feel better o Lexical Borrowing: lack of vocab in one code  Negatives of Code-Switching: o Attitudes: people are unaware when they code-switch and if attention is brought to the behaviour, they apologize o Out of Group Effect: those who do not understand the code cannot communicate and if not reciprocated, they are not included Code Mixing: switching between languages within sentences Tag Switching/Emblematic Switching: the switch in languages is an interjection or sentence filler to serve as an ethnic identity marker Lexical Borrowing: a code-switch due to the lack of vocabulary in the current language, must borrow a word from another language to describe what they need to say Fused Lect: Relatively stable mixture of two languages Intra-Sentential Code-Switching: code-switching in the middle of a sentence Inter-Sentential Code-Switching: code-switching at clause boundaries Embedded Language: Content words Matrix Language: Prefixes and suffixes signaling negation, subject, person, number and gender (the add-ons) Situational Switching: when people switch from one code to another for reasons, which can be identified  If we knew the relevant situational or social factors in advance, we could predict the switches Metaphorical Switching: code-switching for rhetorical reasons, drawing on the associations of both codes  Each of the codes represent or symbolizes a set of social meanings and the speaker draws on the associations of each Chapter 3: Language Death: when the last remaining speaker of a language dies and the language is no longer spoken anywhere Language Loss: losing the knowledge to speak a language (losing the proficiency of using a language) Language Maintenance: when a language is seen as an important factor to ethnic identity, the language is maintained  Resisting the pressure to join the majority and discontinue use of minority language Language Shift: the language of the wider society displaces the minority mother tongue language  From using two distinct codes in different domains to using different varieties of just one language for communicative needs Society Pressure: immigrants who look and sound different Ethnolinguistic Vitality: used to predict likelihood of the language being maintained  Affected by: the status of the language from the attitudes towards it, the size and distribution of the people who use it and the extent to which the language enjoys institutionalized support Language Revival: deliberate steps to revitalize a language that is in danger of disappearing  Community becomes aware of language endangered Bilingual Education: immersing children in the language in school Chapter 4: Vernacular: refers to a language which is not standardized and which does not have official status  It’s the most colloquial variety in a linguistic repertoire Standard Varieties: written and codified varieties  It’s recognized and prestigious Codification: grammars and dictionaries that prescribe the standard form of the language Lingua Franca: a language of communication between two people whose first languages differ Pidgins: a language, which has no native speakers  Formed to be a linga franca (works as one) Lexifier (Superstrate): the language that provides most of the vocabulary to the pidgin Substrate: the language that influences the grammatical structure of the pidgin Creoles: a pidgin that has acquired native speakers Creolisation: the process of making a pidgin into a creole by having native speakers Acrolect: upper boundaries of the speech continuum  The variety of the creole that is similar to the Standard variety o Spoken by Most Educated Speakers Basilect: lower boundaries of the speech continuum  The variety of the creole that is similar to the Pidgin Mesolect: intermediate points of the speech continuum  The variety of the creole that is in-between the Pidgin and the Standard Variety De-Creolisation: the process of features in the creole changing to be more like the standard variety Chapter 5: National Language: a language of political, cultural and social unit  Deve
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