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LING 3P61- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 78 pages long!)


Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LING 3P61
Professor
Lynn Dempsey
Study Guide
Final

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Brock U
LING 3P61
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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There are predictable patterns to language acquisition but still individual variability
plurals are acquired between 27-30 months
First word 10-15 months
Language has three parts
Form
Phonology
Sound system
Child must recognize and produce 44 different consonant and
vowel sounds and how they can and cannot be combined
(phonotactic constraints)
Morphology
Combining units of linguistic meaning to create words
Child must learn how morphemes can be combined (ex plurals,
prefixes, suffixes and root words) and how they change the
meaning of words
Syntax
System of combining words into sentences
Child must learn rules for sentence structure and what different
word orders mean
Content
Semantics
Meanings of words and word combination
Child must learn to produce and understand tens of thousands of words
and know how words relate to each other
Use
Pragmatics
Appropriate language use
How to combine sentences in order to have conversation
How to tell a story
How to speak appropriately to peers and teachers
Chronological
6 months
Babbling
Reacting to noise, music and voices
Look at person talking to him/her
18 months
Say at least 18 words their parents will understand
Average vocab is 50 words
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Look to see where a noise is coming from
Will understand simple directions
Try to repeat words
2nd year (12-24 months)
Increase in vocabulary size (up to 500 words)
2 word combinations
Increase intelligibility
Communicate more often and for a greater variety of purposes (protest, greeting,
requests, labelling things etc)
Can do what parents ask
Listen to simple stories and songs
3rd year (24-36 months)
Mastery of grammar
Longer utterances
Greater variety of sentence types
Use of grammar endings
Greater vocab
Improved intelligibility
Metalinguistic ability
Narration
4th year (38-48 months)
Refining and further developing existing skills
Complex, multicluase sentences
Beyond
Further refinement
Literacy (reading and writing)
Controversies in language acquisition
Nature vs nurture
Is language acquisition the result of innate processes? Or a function of a child’s
experiences in the environment?
Nativist view says the language learning is something that happens to the child
who is placed in an appropriate environment; much like the child's body will grow
in a predetermined way given proper nutrients. Child does not have to actively
pursue language as long as they are provided necessities of life
Interactionist view says there are some innate qualities but what is important is
experience and language input from others
Social interactionist believe language learning is hard work a child goes
through with a relationship with an adult and good cognitive ability
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