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Work and Family.docx

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Brock University
Labour Studies
Harry John

Work and Family Gender and inequality  Sex – biological characteristics such as vagina or penis and other organs related to reproduction  Gender – personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being male or female  Gender inequality or stratification – the unequal distribution of wealth, power and privilege between men and women  Male-female differences exist in o Physical ability, but women have a greater life span o During adolescence, females excel in werbal skills (that is, language skill) while boys show greater mathematical ability. These differences are probably due to both biology and socialization o Research points to no differences in intelligence Gender in global perspective  George peter meurdoch (1897 – 1985) o Head of yales human relations area files  Classify and index all human cultures  Known for creating 70 cultural universals none of which are gender-specific o In most pre-industrial societies, hunting and warfare fall to men and domestic duties to women, but beyond this pattern, societies showed variation in tasks  Margaret Mead: 1901-78 o A founding mother of anthropology o Pioneered the cross-cultural stdy of personality o Margaret mead’s research: mean and women behaved very differently in different societies Patriarchy and Sexism  Patriarchy – a form of social organization in which males dominate females  Matriarchy – a form of social organization in which females dominate males  Sexism – belief that one sex is innately superior to the other  The costs – stunting the talents and limiting the ambitions of women Gender and socialization  Patriarchy exists through the learning of genderroles: attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex by means of o Family – treats men as independent and women as passive  Women continue to invest more time in early child rearing than men o Peer group – boys have games of competition and girls have games of cooperation Gender and social stratification  Working mn and women o The gap in participation rates in the Canadian labour force is closing  1986 – men = 94% women = 70%  2005 men = 91% women = 81% o Women still dominate helping professions and men dominate most senior positions and trades o Women however make up 35% of self employed workers  Housework: womens “second shift” o Women work full time and do most of the housework and child care.  Unpaid work in the house 
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