Chapter 14 – Advertising and digital communications
Today’s marketing is closely related to integrated marketing communications in many
ways. While IMC involves a msg dealing with buyer-seller relationships, advertising
consists of paid non-personal communication through various media with the purpose of
informing/persuading members of a particular audience.
Advertising is used by marketers to reach target markets with messages designed to
appeal to business firms, not for profit organizations or the end consumer.
Advertising can provide an efficient, inexpensive, and fast method of reaching the ever
elusive, increasingly segmented consumer market.
1. Types of advertising:
a. Product advertising – non personal selling of a particular good or
service, this is the type of advertising an avg person usually thinks of
about most promotional activities.
b. Industrial advertising - promotes a concept, an idea, a philosophy, or the
goodwill of an industry, company, organization, person, geographic
location or government agency.
2. Objectives of advertising
a. Informative advertising – seeks to develop initial demand for a good,
service, organization, person, place, idea, or cause.
i. Common in the introductory stage of the PLC
b. Persuasive advertising – attempts to increase demand for an existing
good, service, organization, person, place, idea, or cause.
i. Competitive type of promotion suited for the growth stage and
early part of maturity of the PLC.
c. Reminder advertising – strives to reinforce a previous promotional
activity by keeping the name of a good, service, organization, person,
place, idea or cause before the public.
i. Common in latter part of the maturity stage and throughout the
decline stage of PLC.
Effective advertising strategies accomplish at least one of these tasks: informing,
persuading and reminding. However the secret to choosing the best strategy is developing
a msg that best positions a firm’s product in the audiences mind. 1. Comparative advertising – a promotional strategy that emphasizes advertising
msgs with direct or indirect comparisons to dominant brands in the industry, often
used by those who are not leaders in the markets.
Leaders in the market usually don’t acknowledge competing products
even exist but when they do, they don’t point out any benefits of the
2. Celebrity testimonials- a promotional strategy that uses celebrity spokespeople
to convey their marketing msg. It is important for companies to be sure that their
brands tie to a celebrity makes sense and is genuine.
The advantages of this is that there will be improved product recognition
in a promotional environment filled with hundreds of competing brand
A celebrity testimonial generally succeeds when the celebrity is a credible
source of information for the product being promoted. The most effective
ads are those that establish relative links between the celebrity and the
product being advertised. Ex models and cosmetics.
A celebrity who endorses too many products may create marketplace
confusion. Customers may remember the celebrity but not the product or
brand. Even worse, they might connect the celebrity to a competing brand.
3. Retail advertising – advertising by stores that sell goods or services directly to
the consuming public.
Many retail stores continue to view advertising as a secondary activity,
although that is changing. Local independent retailers rarely use
advertising agencies because of the expense. Instead store managers may
take on the responsibility of advertising in addition to their duties.
Management can correct this problem by assigning one person the
responsibility for developing an effective retail advertising program.
Cooperative advertising is when a retailer shares advertising costs with a
manuf/wholesaler. These campaigns were originated to take advantage of
the media’s practice of offering lower rates to local advertisers than to
4. Interactive advertising – 2 way promotional messages transmitted through
communication channels that induce msg recipients to participate actively in the
Interactive advertising creates dialogue between markets and individual
shoppers, providing more materials at the user’s request. The challenge is
to gain and hold consumer interest in an environment where individuals
control what they want to see.
Interactive advertising provides consumers with more information in less
time to help make necessary comparisons between available products. Successful interactive ads adds value by offering the viewer more than just
product related information.
5. Cross Promotion – Promorional technique in which marketing partners share the
cost of a promotional campaign that meets their mutual needs.
Forms of cross promotion are co-marketing (agreement between 2
businesses to jointly market each other’s products) and co-branding (
agreement between 2 or more businesses to closely link their names on a
Advertising campaign is a series of different but related ads that use a single theme and
appear in different media within a specified time period.
1. Advertising appeals
i. This is primarily for insurance, auto’s and even battery ads. This appeal
implies that incorrect buying decisions could lead to property loss, injury
or other bad consequences.
ii. Fear appeals could backfire since viewers practice selective perception
and tune out statements they perceive as too strong or not credible.
Humour in advertising
i. Seek to create a positive mood related to a product/service.
ii. Some professionals believe that humour distracts attention from brand and
product features…. Consumers may remember the humour but not the
iii. Humour can be tricky since what one group of consumers find funny may
not be funny at all to another group. Ex. Men usually have different sense
of humour than women, the distinction maybe greater across cultures.
Ads based on sex
i. These ads appeal immediately attract the consumers attentions.
ii. Marketers using sex based ads walk a fine line between what is acceptable
to the consumers they want to reach and what is not.
iii. Sometimes a firm’s image can be hurt by this kind of advertising
2. Developing and preparing ads
This process should create an ad that becomes complementary part of the
marketing mix with a carefully determines role in the total marketing strategy.
Preparation of ad should emphasize creativity, its continuity with past
advertisements and possibly its association with other company products. Immediate tasks of an advert should gain attention in a positive way; that is; it
should instill some recall of the good/service. Otherwise it will not lead to buying
If an ad gains attention and informs or persuades, it represents a worthwhile
investment of marketing resources. A mistake that many advertisers commit is
that they fail to suggest how audience members can purchase their products if