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MUSI 1F10 Progress Exam Study Notes ch8-10.docx

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Tim White

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Chapter 8  Properties of sound include pitch, duration, volume and timbre or tone colour  Musical Timber o Tone colour, sound quality o Determined by size, shape, proportions of an instrument  Instrument: mechanism that generates musical vibrations and transmits them into air  Voice as instrument o Voices range from highest to lowest: soprano, Mezzo-soprano, alto for female voices, tenor, baritone, bass for male voices o Human voice: vibrato: slight and rapid variations in pitch  The world instrument classification o aerophones (flutes or horns), o chordophones (violins), o idiophones (bells) o membranophones (drums) Chapter 9  Strings instruments (chordophones) are sounded by bowing and plucking o Bowed strings: violin, viola, cello, and double bass  Played legato (smoothly, connected) and staccato (notes short, detached) o Plucked strings include harp and guitar  harp: one of the oldest instruments  guitar dates back to middle Ages  Woodwind instruments (aerophones) o Sound produced by air, finger holes changes pitch o Flute: blow across a mouth hole o Oboe and bassoon: mouthpiece with a double reed o Clarinet and saxophone: single-reed mouthpiece  Brass instruments (areophones) o Cup sharped mouthpiece attached to metal tubing, flares at the end into a bell o Pitches changed by slide or valves, pressure of lips and breath o Trumpet, French horn, trombone, and tuba  Percussion instruments (idiophones and membranophones) o pitched (chimes) o unpitched (tambourin手鼓 )  Ke
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