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[PHIL 1F91] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (52 pages long)


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHIL 1F91
Professor
Brian Lightbody
Study Guide
Final

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Brock U
PHIL 1F91
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Day 1
PHIL 1F91: What is Philosophy
One way to understand what something is, is to ask: What is its nature. (eg, what is a
hammer, the essence of it, is to drive in nails. If the hammer breaks, we no longer have a
working hammer, it lost its essential ualities. If soeoe paits it, it doest ake it
essential, it still is the ability to drive in nails)
Essential and accidental qualities exist.
Sometimes philosophers will ask what something is by asking what is X qua X. Qua is
Lati ad eas as it is
Justice = Fairness, essential characteristic of justice is fairness.
Example: What is the human being qua human being? What is Being qua Being? What is
philosophy qua philosophy?
Imagination is an accident property of the mind; you can still think ee if ou at
imagine.
“oates is faous fo The ol thig I ko, is that I ko othig
Aothe a to ase this uestio is to ask, Ho is soethig used?
Example What is truth?
Some might claim that the nature of truth is adequatio
A statement is true provided that it accurately reflects a state of affairs.
Lecture 2
The First Way
Some might claim that the nature of truth is adequatio
A statement is true provided that it accurately reflects a state of affairs
The Second Way
How is tuth used?
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Ofte the od tuth o tue is eploed he agues ake oflitig lais
Truth is a convenient fiction. (Rorty)
Truth is a stopgap measure when one no longer wishes to inquire further. (Nietzsche)
What is Philosophy?
Philosophy is an attempt to answer open questions?
Open questions are questions where it is difficult to ascertain what an adequate answer
would look like.
They are questions where it is difficult to see how one might begin to answer them.
They are questions that deeply matter to us
The Main Branches of Philosophy
1. Logic is the study of arguments and inference patterns;
. Episteolog is the stud of koledge hat a I ko
3. Metaphysics is the study of nature and of ultimate reality;
4. Ethics is the study of moral actions;
5. Aesthetics is the study of art and beauty
Logic
To study logic is to study correct inference or thinking patterns
There are three laws of logic
The law of identity: A is A
The law of non-contradiction: A is not, not A
The law of excluded middle: either A or not-A but not both.
We will look at several logical inference patterns as we look at argumentations.
Epistemology
Epistemology comes from the ancient Greek word epistemai (knowledge or
acquaintance) and logos (study of).
Epistemologists are interested in justified true, belief: how can (and do) we justify
beliefs and how do we know that our beliefs are true?
Metaphysics
Meta is the ancient Greek word for over or beyond while physics comes from the Greek
word (physis) which means nature. Thus metaphysics studies that which is over or
beyond nature (ie Ultimate Reality)
What is Being? Is the metaphysical question par excellence because we are asking:
What do all eigs hae i oo?
Ethics
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