pekn 1p90 notes to study for final exam.docx

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Brock University
Physical Education and Kinesiology
David Ditor

1P90 PEKN Final Exam Study Sheet Human Body: - Anatomy: study of body’s form and structure - Physiology: study of body functions - Systems/ levels (largest to smallest): organ systems (11), organs, tissues, cells, organelles - Anatomical positions: Superior (above), inferior (below), proximal (near trunk), distal (away from trunk), medial (near middle), lateral (towards sides) - Directional terms: anterior/ventral (towards body), posterior/dorsal (back of body), deep (below surface) - Axial Region: head, neck, trunk (abdominals) - Appendicular Region: extremities/ limbs (arm, legs) - 3 body cavities: Diaphragm, Thoracic, Abdominals - 3 types of cells: Muscle, nerve, blood - Homeostasis: maintain normal levels in the body, two types (negative= reverses the reaction ex: when your cold body will find a way to warm up by shivering) (positive: leads to greater changes like birth contractions, or fevers), to maintain need a control system - Agonist: prime movement (biceps in bicep curls) - Antagonist: opposite movement (triceps in bicep curls) - Fascia: extension of tendonous tissue -Super Fascia: separates muscle from skin - 3 Types of Connective Tissues: 1. Epimysium (covers muscle) 2. Perimysium (covers muscle bundles) 3. Endomysium (covers muscle fibres/cells) - Locomotion: stability (posture), communication (walking, talking), control of body openings (sphincter muscles), heat production (sweating) - T-Tubules: action potentials take place, initiate calcium release from sarcolema reticulum - Terminal Cristae: surrounds T-tubules, sac like - IMTG’s (Intra-muscular tri-glycerides) acid chemical reactions that occur in sarcoplasma - Myoglobin: protein that binds iron to O2 - Myofibrils: specialized arrangement of contractile proteins, each one is composed of rod like proteins - Sarcolema: cell membrane, outside - Myofilaments: z-disc to z-disc =Sarcomere, a band doesn’t move (thick filaments), I band shortens, h band=middle of a band (shortens), a band (width stays the same) - Actin = thin filaments - Myosin = thick filaments - Tropomyosin: thread like, covers binding sites - Troponin: made of 3 poly peptides: (each bind with something) 1. Binds to tropomyosin 2. Binds to calcium (Ca2+) – moves tropomyosin out of the way so actin and myosin can bind 3. Binds to actin - Tintin: elastic filaments, connects z-discs, keeps other filaments arranged, spring like (recoils), stabilizes thick filaments - Power stroke: myosin head swivel towards center of Sarcomere, ATP binds to myosin head, hydrolysis of ATP transfers energy to myosin head and reorients it, single power stroke pulls thin filaments inwards (only small distance), repeated cycles of cross bridge complete the muscle contraction  ATP  ADP and Pi - Sliding filament mechanism: increase in calcium starts filament sliding, decrease stops it, thin slide over thick (pulls 2 z-lines closer together), all Sarcomere shorten - Neural Impulse: what a muscle needs in order to contract (drive mechanism) - Acetylcholinterase breaks down Ach at neuromuscular junction during relaxation (how action potential stops) - Cross bridge formation cycle 5 steps: binding of myosin/actin, power stroke (actin pulled back to middle, rigor (myosin and actin bind together=stuck), unbinding of myosin/actin, cocking of myosin head - Muscle Contraction Process: muscle gets excited, ca2+ stabilizes tropomyosin in blocking position over actins cross bridge binding sites, ca2+ binds to Troponin, moves tropomyosin out of the way, actin and myosin bind/interact at cross bridge - 2 Nervous Systems CNS: brain spinal cord, (interprets sensory info) PNS: nerves - Neurons membrane charge = -70mV (resting) - Inside = high K+ Outside = high Na+ - Depolarization: 35-60mV (low) (gradient = 0) - Repolarization: -70 resting - Hyperpolarization: -90 - MOTOR UNIT: each motor unit to muscle never innervates many muscle fibres, # varies among different motor units, muscles that contain fewer fibres = more delicate movements, larger fibres for more forceful movements - Tendons muscle - Ligaments  bone - 3 major types of muscle fibres: (based on differences in ATP hydrolysis & synthesis) 1. Slow oxidative (type 1) : smaller neurons, slow to fatigue, red, low glycolytic, high oxidative, slow to fatigue, ex: posture 2. Fast oxidative (type2a) : larger neurons, quick to fatigue, ex: sprinting, produces lactic acid, semi white in colour, high glycolytic, low oxidative 3. Fast glycolytic (type2b) - Muscle spindles: lie between muscle fibres, trigger muscles when stretched (flexibility) - Golgi Tendon organs: sensory receptors, small bundle of muscle tendon fibres, triggers muscle contraction when over stretched - Acute: short term (pain, injury) - Chronic: long term - 4 main types of tissue: Muscle (skeletal, cardiac, smooth), nervous (transmitselectrical impulses), connecting (connects, supports, anchors body parts), epithelial ( exchange of material between cell/environment) - 2 types of epithelial tissues: epithelial sheets (cells tightly together that form sheets) secretory glands (sweat/salvia glands) - 2 categories of glands: exocrine (sweating, go through ducts to outside of the body), endocrine (lack ducts, hormones) - Intracellular Fluid: fluid inside the cells - Extracellular Fluid: fluid outside surrounds the cells (2 components: plasma, interstitial fluid) Heart: (most active tissue) (very oxidative) - Pericardium: covers the heart, fluid filled - Heart includes: heart, arteries (carry away), veins (carry towards), capillaries, blood - Sulci: groves on surface of the heart - 3 layers that form the outside of the heart: 1. Epicardium (outer layer) 2. Myocardium (middle layer) (major layer of heart wall) (muscular layer) 3. Endocardium (inside layer) - 4 chambers of the heart: L,R arteries, L,R Ventricles - 2 unique circuits: pulmonary(closed loop of vessels carrying blood between heart and lungs, low pressure and resistance), systemic ( vessels carrying blood between heart and other body parts, high pressure and resistance) - Location of the heart: in ribs, left side of the sternum, above diaphragm, in thorax - Septum: continuous muscular portion that prevents mixture of blood from 2 heart sides - 7 transitions of cardiac impulses(make heart beat): SA node, atria, AV node, bundle of his, bundle of branches, purkinje fibres, ventricles - Extrinsic control: hormones, makes resting heart rate, outside - 3 systems extrinsic controls: parasympathetic (decreases hr), sympathetic (increases hr, adrenaline), endocrine system (increase force of contraction, EPI, NEPI hormones) - Intrinsic controls: cardiac muscle generates own electrical signal - SA node: pacemaker of the heart - 5 tissues in the heart that keep auto conduction system pumping: Av node, bundle of his, bundle of branches, purkinje fibres, SA node - Cardiac Veins: blood drains from capillaries into these, large vein, empties into RA - Auto rhythmic cells: make up 1% of cells (99%=contractile cells), conduct action potentials, have a pacemaker potential (instead of resting) - 5 things that goes on for action potential to take place (reach threshold): Ion gates must open, ions move in, decrease outward flow of K+, constant flow f Na+ inwards, and inward flow of Ca2+ - Refractory Period: second action potential takes place, Na+ = responsible for this period - Arteries are NOT always oxygenated: pulmonary =deoxygenated (same for veins) - Hypertension: bp =too high - Hypotension: bp =too low - Right Av valve also called: tricuspid valve (3 flaps) (between R/L atrium/ventricle) - Left Av valve also called: bicuspid valve (2 flaps) - Semilunar valves: aortic and pulmonary valves, lie where arteries leave ventricles - Purkinje Fibres: spread of bundle of his, twig like - 2 types of hr: tachycardia (fast) bradycardia (slow) - Contractility: strength of contraction, due to increase in ca2+ - ECG: Electro cardiogram, picks up electrical signals of the heart (look at diagram**) - P wave: atrial depolarization - PR wave: AV nodal delay - QRS: Ventricular depolarization (atria repolarizes, masked) - ST segment: ventricles are contracting and emptying - T wave: Ventricular Repolarization - TP interval: ventricles relax and begin to fill (repeats again) - Systole: contracting (atria and ventricles) (max pressure in arteries when contracting) - Diastole: relaxing (atria and ventricles) - Cardiac Output: volume of blood ejected each minute by ventricle (look at formula**) - Heart sounds: (lub swish dub) (result of action potential) st - 1 Sound: Lub, ventricular contraction occurs, closing of TV and BV - 2 Sound: Dub, ventricular relaxation occurs, closing of P and A Semilunar valves - Ischemia: decrease in blood supply to the heart - Angina Pectoris: Chest pains - Myocardial Infarction: heart attack (blood clot) - Without O2 cells will die! - HR response to dynamic exercise: (2 phases) turning on phase, progressive drift - Stop reverse of Blood flow: chordane tendinea, TV, papillary muscles - Bicuspid also called: mitral valve - Heart mummers: abnormal heart sounds (turbulent-crazy and laminar- straight) - Influence of arteries: epinephrine, nor epinephrine, and vaso epinephrine - Plateau phrase: creates long refractory period - Heart Failure: cause from decrease in SV - Local Control: vasodilatation, more O2 required vessels control their own blood flow - Neural Control: vasoconstriction, walls supplied by sympathetic nerves (smaller) Blood: - Purpose: (TAT) Transport, acid and base balance, temperature regulation - Makes up 3 elements: RBC, WBC, Platelets - RBC: Red blood cells, erythrocytes, contain hemoglobin (red colour), transport O2, make up 99% of blood, no nucleus, organelles or ribosome’s - WBC: White blood cells, immune defenses, 1% (between platelets), leukocytes - Platelets: make 1%, thrombocytes, cell fragments required for blood clotting - Haematocrit: ratio of blood cells to total blood volume (%) - Polycythaemia: (2 types) primary (tumor like, too many RBC’s reduces O2 to tissues, high haemocrit, secondary improves O2 carry capacity, occurs in people in high altitudes - 3 major steps in Haemostasis: (prevents blood loss from broken vessel) 1. Vascular Spasm: constriction of vessels 2. Formation of Platelet Plug: by cologne platelets are aggravated, release chemicals(ADP=sticky) 3. Blood Coagulation (clotting) blood = liquid to a solid - Plasma: mostly water (90%), plasma proteins (7%) other: nutrients, hormones, antibodies, wastes, etc (3%) - 3 groups of Plasma proteins: (FAG) Albumis (most abundant), fibrogins (part of clotting), globulins - 3 subclasses of Globulins: (ABG) Alpha, Bata, gamma - Shape of RBC’s: concave, large SA for diffusion of O2 across membrane - Erythropoesis: production of RBC’s (survive 120 days long) - Spleen: removes Old RBC’s - Anemia: Low in RBC’s (iron deficient) - Kidney’s: detect if low in O2 - 5 types of Leukocytes (WBC’s): 1. Neutrophils (attack infections) 2. Esnophils (protect body, kill and swallow) 3. Basnophils (structionally functional to mast cells, poorly understood) 4. Monocytes (rebuild damaged tissue) 5. Lymphocytes (consist of b and t cells) - B cells: release antibodies - T cells: directly attack viruses - Heparin: very powerful blood thinner - Clot Formation: reinforces platelet plug, covers blood in a gel - Thrombus: sticky part (abnormal clot) - Emboli: free floating blood clot - Hemophilia: excessive bleeding - Immunoglobulin’s: gamma globulins that contribute to body defences - Embolus: High levels of clotting lead to - Pernicious Anemia: inability to absorb vitamin B12 due to loss of intrinsic factor - Erythropoietin: stimulates erythropesis, circulates through blood increases O2 carrying (hormone) - 2 things make up immune system: leukocytes, plasma proteins - Polymorphnonucular: many shaped nucleus’s (Esnophils/ Neutrophils) - Mononuclear: single nucleus (Monocytes/Lymphocytes) - Magakaryotes: produce platelets - Sickle cell anemia: odd shaped, decreases O2 carrying capacity - Carbonic Anhydraze: enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of CO2 and H2O into carbonic acid, H2CO3 - Pernicious Anemia: can’t produce enough B12 - Red Bone Marrow: Source of most blood cells - Pressure Gradient: pressure difference between beginning and end of a vessel - During Exercise: muscle tissue can increase 12-25 times resting rate - 2 major adjustments of blood flow: increase in CO, redistribution of blood from inactive to working muscles (peripheral) - Viscosity: thickness (water compared to molasses) - Arteries: 4mm in dia, walls contain elastic tissue and smooth muscle tissue, called elastic tubes, large radius, low resistance, pressure reservoirs, hormonal and neural control - Veins: 5.0mm in dia, walls are elastic tissue and smooth muscle, dispensability allows them to pool large volumes of blood and become reservoirs for blood, values return blood to the heart, also known as a skeletal muscle pump - Capillaries: 8um in dia, microscopic blood vessels, smallest of all vessels, thin walls (0.5um thick), for exchanges and diffusion, precapillary sphincter, regulates blood flow with specific tissues to meet metabolic demands, local control - Arterioles: resistance vessels, 30um in dia, ability to vasodilate and vasoconstrict, changing dia allows them to control the flow of blood, have strong muscular wall that can alter the dia, r
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