PEKN 2PO3 Review.docx

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Physical Education and Kinesiology
Maureen Connolly

PEKN 2PO3 Review: Course Objectives: o Understand various forms of gymnastics o Apply principles efficiently o Develop observational skills o Enhance personal movements o Develop sensitivity through relationships with partners and objects/equipment Lab Content: (throughout the whole course) - 4 concepts: - 1. body awareness: what parts of the body move - 2. special awareness: where the body moves - 3. effort awareness: how the body moves - 4. Relationships: with whom/what the body moved with - Body Awareness: - 1. Weight Bearing: - Support - Transfer of weight (4): - 1. Step like: - 2. Slide like: - 3. Flight: - 4. Rock n’ roll: - Balance (2): - Static balance: balancing while stationary - Dynamic: balancing while moving (think dynamic=speed/movement) - 2.Basic Functions: - Curl - Stretch - Twist - 3. Parts of the body: - Parts used - Parts stressed - Parts leading - Parts meeting/parting - Parts Used: symmetry (2 hands held up) and asymmetry: (1 hand up, 1 hand down) - 4. Body locations: - Locomoter - Gesture - Turns and rotations - Elevation (flight) - Simultaneous actions (done at the same time) - Successive actions (done at different times) - Spatial awareness: - 1. Pathways - Zigzag - Straight - Circular/curved - 2. Directions: - Forwards - Backwards - Left - Right - Up - 3. Levels - Low - Medium - High - 4. Extensions: (think you are stuck on a bar) - Longitudinal (up and down) - Anterior/posterior AP (front and back) - Transverse (left/right/sides) - Effort Awareness: - Speeds - Weight - Time - Rhythm - Relationships: - With partners - With apparatuses - Self and floor - Matching: exact same movements at the same time - Mirroring: same movements at the same time except opposite sides of the body (think about mirroring another person) ex: one does a right handed cartwheel another person does a left handed - Copying: same movement at different times - Negotiation: with partner using under, through, over, and above their partners/other objects - 4 movement forms: dance, fitness, games, gymnastics - Example of concept, theme, subtheme: - Concept: body awareness - Theme: weight baring - Subtheme: transfer of weight Lecture material: - Various forms of gymnastics: (4) - Chinese: martial art wushu (idea of gymnastics started) - Ancient Egypt: acrobats vaulted over bulls - Greek: - Gymmos: means naked - Gymnastics: means running, wrestling, swimming, throwing, jumping - King Minos: liked the idea of sport being pleasure/entertainment - He gave his royal approval for gymnastics to be a sport/entertainment - Soldier requirement: used skills to do gymnastics - Horses were a great asset - Gymnastics became a mandatory subject for all kids in schools - There are 2 sides to this sport: 1. War 2. Entertainment - Romans: evolved gymnastics to military training - It built muscles, strengthens, and the men are young and active (ready to fight) - 20 century changed this when weapons were invented - FIG: federation of international gymnastics, started in Liege in 1881 - Vault came from Roman’s getting on and off horses - 1896: only men were aloud in Olympics for gymnastics th - 19 century conflicts: - 1. Swedish freestyle system - 2. German: using apparatuses system - Both had different approaches and motifs - Europe: had large open air gymnastics (playgrounds started) - Military still exists today: saluting to judges after performance and marching into the Olympics with your countries - Women: body heavy - Men: top heavy th - 20 century women finally competed in Olympic games (started with calisthenics) - 7 forms of gymnastics: - Artistic - Trampoline - Rhythmic - Aesthetic (original) - General (calisthenics/groups/synchronized and Swedish) - Acrobatic - Educational (fundament/movement skills) - Friedrich Ludwig Jahn started turner gymnastics - Franz Nachtegall: opened military gymnastics (to get soldiers stronger: own gym) - Nadia Comaneci: first perfect score in Olympics also very young small and everyone was impressed, they had not seen such talent in young and small - Olga Korbut another young small gymnast - John Friedrich Gutsmuths: held classes on balance and strength - Italian Girolana Merukle: wrote a book about diet/exercise, healthy body = healthy mind/person this was the first book on sports medicine Traditional: Educational: Specific movement Generalized movement (4 ways to travel across the floor Precise Exploration/creativity Rigid movements Versatile movement as a goal Set standards (can’t continue if not met) Set own standards/goals (still had expectations but it was their own) Society centered/driven individualized - Rudolf Laban: designed the framework for analyzing movement/educational gymnastics - Programs shifted: learning responsibility to the kids - Included problem solving, exploration, creativity, expression, etc - Allowed kids of all abilities to find success - Created black lash with teachers (new to them) - 4 attributes make us well rounded individuals/athletes: - 1. Flexibility: range of movement in a joint/series of joints, 3 types: - Passive range: moved with partner, low - Active range: furthest limb can extend - Full range: important for every sport, prevents injury, allows to extend further, and better overall range of motion - 2 limits: soft tissue (all muscles, ligaments, etc can shorten/tighten) strength: weakens with active range - 3 types of stretching: - 1. Static stretching: stretching while still (hold for 60+ seconds) - 2. Ballistic/dynamic stretching: stretching will moving/bouncing (bad for your joints) - 3. Assisted stretching done with partner - 2. Strength: amount of force that a muscle can generate when it contracts - Hypertrophy: loss of muscle - Fibres: break down when building muscle, they tear and rip so muscle an get bigger and stronger - Importance of strength: it increases performance, safety, skills, more strength reserves, related attributes, stronger muscles absorb more - Limits: gender and age (puberty-late 20’s = best time to work out) - 3. Power: combination of strength and speed (build muscle first, speed later) - 4. Endurance: cardio-respiratory/muscular endurance, ability to resist muscular fatigue - COG: center of gravity (right weighs same as left side of the body) points on which the body rotates around 3 axes - Factors that facilitate learning: physical attributes, repetition, use of feedback (auditory, visual, kinesthetic), motivation, material (boring or interesting),social, progress, etc - Don’t leave a skill just because it has already been learned! - Social= biggest impact on exercise - 4 principles of mechanics of balance: - 1. Height of COG over BOS (base of support) = closer to COG to BOS, greater the stability - 2. COG relative to BOS within for balance to occur - 3. Size of base (larger = better) - 4. COG of segments relative to base, each segment = own COG - 3 phases of balance: - 1. Gaining - 2. Maintaining - 3. Terminating - Other factors that affect balance - People, surface, external force, environment/weather, distractions, eyes opened/closed, not focussing, fatigued, not strong enough, nutrition (poor/good) - Theoretical knowledge required in 3 main areas: - 1. Subject matter being taught - 2. Process of learning - 3. Process of teaching - Process of learning: learning: relatively permanent change that is the result from experience (leaning a new skill) - Everything we do we learn from - Easier to correct something new then to re due after already learning it a different way - 3 phases of learning: - 1. Understanding/cognitive phase: trial/error, repetitions, practice, verbal = small, using all 5 senses - 2. Intermediate phase: skills are more constant, errors gradually decrease, verbal =key words - 3. Automatic phase: consistent skill, performance reflects practice, fine tuning stage - Learning outcomes: (goals and objectives) - Provide direction of the progression as modified desired by the province, territory, district, individual, school - Determine what the students should know and be able to do know where the student has completed their schooling - Applies to the parents of the students (do what they love0 (retain ore teach?) - 3 key characteristics: - 1. Desired behaviour = observable - 2. Behaviour = measurable - 3. Criteria for success that can be measured - Use 5 W’s (who, what, when, where, why) - Expectations - How it’s measured - How to meet level 4... - Learning domains: (3) - Psychomotor domain (corbin, 1976) - Physical - Movement vocab - Locomoter movement - Movement of implements and objects - Patterns of movement - Movement with others - Move efficiently using variety of locomotive skills - Ex: walking, running, skipping, hopping, etc - Perform body management skills on a variety of apparatuses including climbing ropes, benches, and balance beams - 2. Cognitive domain (thinking/mind) (bloom, 1956) - Knowledge - Comprehension - Application - Analysis - Synthesis - Evaluation - Variety of ways to test this - Demonstrate an understanding of words that describe a variety of relationships with objects such as around, behind, over, through, and parallel = known as negotiation which are done with partners in the lab section of this class - Demonstrate an understanding of low warm up/ cool-down and prevent injuries - Use assignments, projects, questions, and answers - 3. Affective Domain: Krathwohl et. Al, 1964 - (how we respond and interact with the environment) - 1. Receive - 2. Respond - 3. Value - 4. Organize - 5. Characterize - Can include other people, ourselves, our equipment, etc - Demonstrate a willingness to participate with peers regardless of diversity/disability - Show empathy for the concern and limitations of peers - Developmentally appropriate activities: - Clear understanding of children = requisite - Task of designing program that flows with kids and doesn’t run contrary to their characteristics and interest requiring a clear view of their nature - Basic urges of kids: - Typical regardless of age, development, maturity, sex, or race - Is a desire to do or accomplish something - Based heredity or environment/linked closely to society influences and are affected by teachers, parents, and peers - Urges: - 1. Urge for movement – appetite for moving performing and being active - They run for the sheer joy of running (look at school yards) - 2. Urge for success approval- like to achieve and have their achievement recognized. They will under certain and disproval where as engagement and friendly support can provide gain and development - Failure can lead to frustration and lack of interest and in efficient learning - Build in every program - 3. Urge for peer acceptance and social competitence – peer acceptance = basic human need and kids want others to accept, respect, and like them - 4. Urge to cooperate and complete- they want to work and play with other kids to find satisfaction in being a needed part of a group and experience sadness when others reject them - Cooperation needs to be taught before competition - Work hand in hand with each other - Like to win, teach how to deal with each other first - 5. Urge for adventure: drive to participate in something different, adventurous, or unusual impels kids to find creative ways to do things the right way - Creates perpetual way of doing things - Don’t leave a way, don’t leave branch out - Don’t follow the rest of the crowd , be your own person/individual - Don’t be a sheep!! - 7. Urge for rhythmic expression: music and enjoy the beat - 8. Urge to know naturally curious (but, why, how, why, who come???) - They are interested not only in what they are doing but also in why they are doing it - Need to ask why/why not me - Motor attributes - Spatial orientation: - Ability/inability to be perceptive and functional in situations like: - The body inverted (upside down or turned around) - The body rotating (turning, twisting, rock n roll, cartwheels, summersaults) - The body at heights (low, medium, high) - The body in space (flight, jumps) - Importance: - Safety depends on the individuals knowing where they are - The execution of many skills relies on the correct timing of muscular action during the performance of the skill - Kinesthetic Sense: - Kinesthetic awareness is a sensory skill that your body uses to know where it is in space - Vestibular system: consists of semicircular canals in the middle ear and monitors the position of the body in space - Proprioceptive system: consists of many different sensory receptors in the muscles, tendons and ligaments that monitor the position of body parts relative to the body - It’s essential that children develop a basic vocabulary of habit actions such as walking, sitting, eating and dressing - Although the kinesthetic sense has been involved in the acquisition of these skills, there is conscious effort in performing the lessons - Responds to concentrated usage with greater sensitivity and lack of usage with reduced sensitivity - Twisting and Turning: - Twisting occurs when one portion of the body remains stable while the rest screws to face a different front - Turning occurs when t entire body turns to face a different front - Partial body action/full body action (differences) - 3 rotational axis’s: - 1. Transverse axis - 2. Anterior-posterior (A/P) axis - 3. Longitudinal axis - Components of a quality physical education program: - (look at picture) ** (printed out) - Guided by content standards: - Organized around content standards that offer direction and continuity to instruction and evaluation - A quality program is driven by a set of content standards - These standards are defined by a number of competencies youngsters are expected to accomplish - Standards are measurable - Health and physical education: - Standards, subgroups, and living skills (3) - 1.Living skills personal skills (PS): - Self-awareness and self-monitoring - Adaptive, management, and coping skills - 2. Interpersonal skills (IS): - Communication skills - Relationships and social skills - 3. Critical an creative thinking (CT) - Planning - Processing - Drawing conclusions/presenting results - Reflecting/evaluating - Strand A: active living: - 1. Active participation - Regular participation, variety, lifelong activity - Enjoyment, motivation - 2. Physical fitness - Fitness development through daily physical activity, personal fitness plan - 3. Safety - Personal safety and safety of others during physical activity - Strand B: movement competence skills, concepts, strategies - 1. Movement skills and concepts - Movement skills- stability, locomotion, and manipulation - Movement concepts: body awareness, effort, spatial awareness, relationships - Movement principles - 2. Movement strategies: - Components of physical activities - Strategies and tactics in all physical activities - Strand C: healthy living: - 1. Understanding health concepts - Understanding the factors that contribute to health and growth development - 2. Making healthy choices: - Applying knowledge, making decisions about personal health and well being - 3. Making connections for healthy living: - Making connections to link personal health and wellbeing to others and to the world around them - Expectations in healthy living strand focuses on the following 5
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