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[PSYC 1F90] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 31 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1F90
Professor
John Mitterer
Study Guide
Final

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Brock U
PSYC 1F90
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Psych 1F90
Tuesday, September 18, 2013
- most basic universal human impulse may be struggle for understanding.
Looking for the answer to questions
- Existential anxiety
- clinging to certainty
- Epistemology (methods to get answers)
- empiricism: science- measure stuff to get answers
- rationalism: philosophy- use rationalizing to get answers
- spiritualism: religion- look to spirit and religion to get answers
- no espistimologic method is guaranteed to bring the absolute truth
Representativeness
- setting representativeness
- researcher effect
- demand characteristics
Setting Representativeness
-Ex. Great ape studies of the turn of the century…
Experimenter bias
- blind: If we are worried about the experimenter bias we keep experimenters
“blind” to the true purpose of the study.
- Unusually (but not always) the bias is unconscious
- Ex. “Aristotle the rat”
- ‘bloomer’ study
Research Participant Bias
- Example: The Hawthorne Effect
-factory example. Assembly line. They act the way they think they’re
supposed to be doing
- Example: Placebo effect
-placebo is an inactive substance given as medicine.
Double-blind
- We can gain some control .. SEE REST FROM SLIDES
Representativeness and mental illness
- St mary’s of Bethlehem (bedlam, England)
- ken kesey’s one flew over the cuckoo’s Nest (1962)
- Rosenhan, D.L (1973). On being sane in insane places.
- Are ‘mental hospitals” unrepresentative environments? Do staff
(“researcher” bias) and inmates (“research participant bias) display
unrepresentative behavior?
- Deinstitutionalization
- 1950- 500,000 people admitted to mental institution
- 1990- 100,000 people admitted to mental institution
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Psych 1F90
Tuesday, September 18, 2013
Opinion
- how might we treat our own experience
- “small ‘r’ reality”?
- Is there an equivalent principle to Popper’s principle of falsifiability?
- How about striving for informed opinions?
-Critical thinking
- not “truthiness”
-George Kelly- “Personal Scientist”
Opinion vs Informed opinion
- A WW11 sociological study of the morale of Black American soldiers. Were these
black soldiers more satisfied with Army life when they were stationed at a military
base in the northern United States than at a base in the then- tightly segregated
southern United States?
-better in south because they were comparing themselves to the people
outside of the base. Ex. They would get a weekend pass to go out in town and they
would see people being treated worse than they were and were happier.
Critical Thinking in Psychology
- regardless of the opinion you held on this question, was it informed? Truly
informed opinion, a product of critical thinking, is supported by:
- a theoretical explanation ( a mechanism or principle that tells us how
something works)
- empirical evidence (observations)
- the critical thinker focuses on both absent or questionable explanations and absent
or questionable evidence.
Key criteria for critical thinking
- there are two key criteria, then , for critical thinking in psychology
- does it make sense? (is there a compelling explanation; is there a simpler,
more plausible alternative explanations?)
- what s empirical evidence?
The priority of data
- as psychologists we are empiricists
- if data and theory conflict, we adjust theory.
- this is why we are skeptical if ESP and the like (17-19, 172-`75)
- this is the scientific approach. Psychology takes a critical-thinking based,
scientific approach to the creation of informed opinion.
Key criteria for critical thinking
- how far can we go in critical thinking in psychology?
- theory
- many different approaches (23-31)
- eclecticism
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