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PSYC 1F90 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Course Code
John Mitterer
Study Guide

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How to Study Psychology
Experiential processing
- Experiential processing thought that passive, effortless and automatic
- Example: watching TV
Reflective processing
- Thought that is active, controlled and effortful
- Example: finishing an argument
Reflective learning
- Deliberately reflective and active self-guided study
- Example: learn more if you mindfully reflect
Critical questions
- Thinking about your own thinking
- Learn about yourself and habits
Introduction to Psychology
What it psychology?
- Scientific study of overt behaviour and mental processes
- Psychologists ultimate goal is to benefit humanity
o Description: name and classify
o Understand: know the cause of a behaviour
o Prediction: accurately forecast behaviour
o Control: alter conditions that influence behaviour
Stimulus: any physical enegry energy that affects a person and evokes a response
Wilhelm Wundt: credited with making psychology separate from philosophy
Getlat Psychology
- Study of thinking, learning and perception in whole units
Psychoanalytic psychology (Freud)
- Behaviour is deeply influenced by our unconscious thoughts, impulses, desires
- Emphasizes internal conflicts, motivates and unconscious forces
Humanistic psychology
- View that focuses on subjective human experience, interested in human potentials, ideas
and problems
- Free will: ability to make voluntary choices, love, self-esteem, belonging
Scientific observation
- Empirical investigation used to answer a question in a systematic and intersubjective fashion
- Concerned with analyzing sensations and personal experience into basic elements
- Example: hold and an apple; you’ve analyzed colour, weight and shape

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- Concerned with how behaviour and mental abilities help people adapt to their environment
- How mind, perception, habits and emotions help us survive and adapt
- Study of observable behaviour
- Relationship between stimuli and response
- Radical behaviourism
o BF Skinner: reward vs punishment (skinner box)
- Cognitive behaviourism
o Combines conditioning and cognition (thinking) to explain behaviour
Biological Perspective
Sociocultural Perspective
Psychological Perspective
Seeks to explain behaviour in
terms of biological principles
(brain processes etc)
Stresses the impact that
social and cultural contexts
have on our behaviour
Behaviours is the result of
psychological processes in each
- Independent variable: is a condition altered by the experimenter
- Dependent variable: measures result of the experiment (reveals the effects that
independent variables have on behaviour)
- Extraneous variable: condition you want to prevent from affecting the outcome
- Experimental group: in a controlled experiment, the group of subjects exposed to the
independent variable or experimental condition
- Control group: in a controlled experiment, the group of subjects exposed to all experimental
conditions/variables except independent variable
- Existence of a consistent, systematic relationship between two events, measures or
- Helps us discover relationships and make predictions
Brain and Behaviour
Nervous system

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Nervous system
- Neurons make up the nervous system
- Nerves = large bundles of neuron fibres
- Spinal nerves = major nerves that carry sensory and motor massages in and out of the spinal
- Cranial nerves = major nerves that leave the brain without passing through the spinal cord
- Synapse = space between two neurons where messages pass
- Capacity of the brain to change in response to experience
Brain research
- Computerized tomographic scan (CT)
o Specialized xray that makes the brain visible
o Forms an image of the brain showing structure, injury, tumors etc.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
o Strong magnetic field to produce an image of the body’s interior
- Functional MRI
o Makes brain activity visible
- Position emission tomography (PET)
o Detailed images of activity both near the surface and below
o Shows which area is using more energy
- Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
o Used as treatment for some psychological disorders (depression)
o Magnetic field pulses emitted
Nervous System
Nervous System
Serves the internal
organs and glands
- Sympathetic nervous
system (emergency
- Parasympathetic
nervous system
(quiets body and
returns it to lowerr
arousal level)
Central Nervous
Spinal cord
Somatic Nervous
Carries to and from
sense organs and
skeletal muschles
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