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PSYC 1F90 Study Guide - Final Guide: Cerebral Cortex, Triune Brain, Frontal Lobe


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1F90
Professor
John Mitterer
Study Guide
Final

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PSYC 1F90 Exam Review
Module 1- How To Study Psychology
Reflective Processing- thought that is mindful, active and controlled (system 2)
Experiential Processing- thought that is mindless, passive and automatic (system 1)
Forms of elaborative processing
oCritical Thinking- ability to evaluate, compare, analyze, critique and synthesize
information
oSelf Reference- relating new information to prior life experience
rSQ4R (Reflective SQ4R Method)
oS= Survey
oQ= Question
oR1= Read
oR2= Recite
oR3= Reflect (Self Reference & Critical Thinking)
oR4= Review
LISAN (Listening/Note Taking Plan)
oL= Lead, don’t follow
oI= Ideas
oS= Signal Words
oA= Actively Listen
oN= Note Taking
Words and concepts are best used in an informed way (reflectively), mindfulness
Intelligence, sex, gender, race
This causes stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination
Reflective cognition transforms our opinions into more informed opinions
Modules 2-6 Introducing Psychology
Epistomology- the priority of empiricism, need for evidence and theory
oCenters on gathering empirical evidence and reconstructing theories
Ontology- an empirically supported theory
oFalsifiability- when data doesn’t match the theory
Ethics- skepticism of theory, tolerance of others, openness to experience
The Scientific Method- form of critical thinking based on careful measurement and
controlled observation
1. Making observations
2. Defining a problem
3. Proposing a hypothesis
4. Gathering evidence & testing hypothesis

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5. Building a theory
6. Publishing results
Three Contemporary Perspectives on Behaviour
1. Biological Perspective- explains behaviour in terms of underlying biological
principles (brain processes, evolution, genetics)
2. Psychological Perspective- views behaviour as a result of psychological processes
(behaviourism, cognitive psychology)
3. Sociocultural Perspective- how social and cultural contexts affect behaviour (social
norms, cultural relativity)
Operational Definition- defining a scientific concept by stating the specific actions or
procedures used to measure it
Types of Evidence
oSelf Report Data- information provided by participants about themselves
(questionnaire)
oSurvey- public polling technique
oObservational Data- data that comes from observing participants and recording
behaviour (naturalistic or structured observation, can be affected by the observer
effect)
oPhysiological Data- data that comes from participants’ physiological processes
(brain, heart, hormones)
We are homo sapiens but share much in common with other animals
Non- cognitive associative learning (classical and operant conditioning) can take place
quickly and effortlessly (nonconsciously)
Modules 7-11 Brain and Behaviour
The Triune Brain
oReptilian (hindbrain: medulla, pons, cerebellum) basic arousal, experiential
cognition
oPaleomammilian (limbic system: amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus)
emotional processing, experiential cognition
oNeomammilian (cerebral cortex: left and right hemispheres, corpus callosum,
frontal lobes) reflection
Hot System: “Go,” reflexive, simple, fast, stimulus control
Cool System: “Know,” complex, slow, self-control
Localization of Function- the research strategy of linking specific structures in the brain
with specific psychological or behavioural functions
oClinical Case Study- a detailed investigation of a person suffering from injury or
disease

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oElectrical Stimulation of the Brain (ESB)- direct electrical stimulation and
activation of brain tissue
oAblation- surgical removal of tissue (deep lesioning removes tissue with
electrode)
CT Scan- a computer enhanced x-ray image of the brain or body
oReveals brain structure, location of strokes, injuries, tumors, brain disorders
MRI- gives a 3D image of brain or body based on its response to a magnetic field
oMore detailed than CT scans
EEG- direct electrical stimulation and activation of brain tissue
oElectrodes measure waves of electrical activity
PET Scan- gives a computer generated image of brain activity based on glucose
consumption in the brain
oShows area using most energy, measures brain activity and disease processes
TMS- uses magnetic fields to study brain functioning or alter brain activity during the
treatment of disorders
oTreats psychological disorders
FMRI- MRI technique that records brain activity
oProvides images of brain activity
CBFS- measures how accurate parts of the brain work
Cerebral Cortex (outer layer)
oFrontal Lobes- associated with movement, sense of self and higher mental
functions
oParietal Lobes- includes sites in which body sensations register
oTemporal Lobes- includes the sites in which hearing registers in the brain
oOccipital Lobes- includes sites in which vision registers in the brain
Subcortex (below cerebral cortex)
oThe Hindbrain
- Brainstem- includes the cerebellum, medulla, pons and reticular formation
- Cerebellum- controls posture, muscle tone and coordination
- Medulla- connects the brain with the spinal cord and controls vital life
functions
- Pons- acts as a bridge between the medulla and other structures
- Reticular Formation- network within the medulla and brainstem; associated
with alertness, attention and some reflexes
oThe Forebrain
- Limbic System- closely linked with emotional response (rage, fear, anger)
contains the following….
- Thalamus- relays sensory information to cerebral cortex (vision, hearing,
taste, NOT SMELL)
- Hypothalamus- regulates emotional behaviours and motives (temperature
control, hunger, hormone release, sleep, walking)
- Amygdala- associated with fear responses
- Hippocampus- associated with storing memories
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