Disrupting Biological Explanations
-1) Ideas about sexuality change over time and place
-2) Sexual practices are taught – social process
-3) Desire is multi-focal – can change over time
Sexuality as Socially Shaped
-1) What is sex? – what you consider a sex act
-2) When is sex appropriate? – what age, etc.
-3) With whom? – who is it appropriate to have sex with
-4) How? – what you consider an enjoyable sexual act
-5) Which bodily sensations?
-6) Which desires?
-7) Which identities?
Identities and Orientation
Orientation – who you desire to have sexual relations with
-Layered with other identities – sex addict, pedophilia, celibate, etc.
Sexuality has a History
-Ira Reiss – patterns of heterosexuality have changed over time
oShift from marital to extra-marital sex
oSexual double standard
-19th century – focus on procreation, not attraction or identity
-Rise of heteronormativity (heterosexuality as natural and normal)
-Homophobia – fear of homosexuality
-Heterosexuality as identity
oBy playing gender “straight”
oBy distancing oneself from an association with homosexuality
-Michael Kimmel – hegemonic heterosexual masculinity
oHigh school boys – no intimate expressions with male friends,
avoid interaction with gay students, aggressive public acts of
-Michael Messner – American fraternities
oHeterosexual identity via violence against women
oPower – multi-directional and constituted within social
oKnowledge (truth) – to know something is to exercise power