TMGT 1P91 Study Guide - Final Guide: Favela, Rocinha, Truancy
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TREN Lecture # 23/24 March 20/April 2
X) The Ethical Imperative
• Tourism ethics
• Case: Sex tourism
• Responsible tourism
• Case: Slum tourism
Tourism is the ultimate act of freedom
we often leave our ‘clock’ at home and act differently
change our attitudes
a break from our life at home
the ability to transcend one’s normal everyday life
Temporally (in time) and spatially (in space)
Behaviorally ….. …In the pursuit of hedonistic ends
Value for money, relaxation, not having to take responsibility for someone or something.
A ‘good’ vacation is that which satisfies these hedonistic ends.
But tourism often suspends morality…
Emphasizes the value of one over the value of others.
A by-product of this is innumerable costs…externalities (impacts).
Costs are difficult to mitigate
Economic theory tells us that incentives to ignore externalities are quite strong.
It is rational to impose costs on third parties…
If this contributes to the satisfaction of our own self-interest.
Tourism is really no different as an expression of human nature
• ‘If, as we are led to believe, tourism is the world’s largest industry, then we should remember it
is a world driven largely by avarice, greed, self-interest… We need, therefore, to look first at
ourselves and then at society when we address tourism’ (Wheeller, 2004: 471).
We are out for ourselves. It is a question of what is best for me and if someone…else pays the
cost, then too bad as long as I get the benefits… isn’t this Darwin’s survival of the fittest?
(Wheeller, 1994: 648).
But have we really looked at ourselves in trying to understand tourist motives?
To do so necessitates going deeper into the realm of human nature…who we are at
the very core
The Evolution of Morality: Reciprocal Altruism (Robert Trivers, 1971)
a very important evolutionary biologist
Humans up until the last 5 seconds of a 24-hour evolutionary clock lived in small, stable,
Cooperation only through repeated interaction over time
Trivers recognized that natural selection favors…
Sensitivity to injustice = motivate human aggression.
Sensitivity to costs and benefits of altruistic acts.
Detection of cheaters.
Making cheaters pay by cutting them off from future acts of aid.
Guilt and reparative gestures.
Forming norms of reciprocal conduct...rules of exchange.
Performing altruistic acts to strangers in inducing friendship.
RA is said to be the basis of…
Barter (Wilson, 2000).
The prisoner’s dilemma & tragedy of the commons (Ridley,1998).
Ethics hammered out over eons (Mayr, 1988)
The demands of reciprocal altruism can explain why the social and moralistic emotions
evolved. Sympathy and trust prompt people to extend the first favor. Gratitude and loyalty prompt
them to repay favors. Guilt and shame deter them from failing to repay others. Anger and
contempt prompt them to avoid or punish cheaters (Pinker, 2002: 243).
What RA means to tourism…
• If RA is a form of cooperation based on mutual benefit over time, cooperation should not take
place in tourism.
• No time to build cooperation
• The need to increase our own well-being at expense of others.
• Rational to cheat—never see the tourist again (**necklace story).
At the broad scale
The cumulative impact of cheating over time in a region.
Doxey (1975): euphoria to hostility…
At any given destination, there exists reciprocating impacts between outsiders and residents,
and that the extent to which these are regarded as irritations will be determined in the main by the
mutual compatibility of each, with the assumption that even with compatible groups, sheer