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ANTH 1002
Eric Henry

Anth 1002 Final Exam Notes Franz Boaz (1858 1942) founded first department of anthropology Columbia University, was against racism/racial classification. Cultural Relativism understanding another culture in its own terms and making the actions of its members comprehensible. (ex: trying to understand Hitler, even if we dont agree) Ethnocentrism the belief that ones culture is dominant or superior Malinowski developed different approach to fieldwork, studied people of the Trobriand Islands 60 years before Annette Weiner. Clifford Geertz theorized that humans raised in isolation would be neither failed apes nor natural people. Without the veneer of culture, they would be mental cases. Applied Anthropology anthropological information is used to solve serious social and cultural problems Holistic Perspective taking into account almost every action or communication of a culture Dualism the theory that reality consists of two equal but separate parts; mind and body. Freud theory that humans are motivated to seek pleasure in a world where that is frequently unattainable. Ethnography written or filmed description of a particular culture Ethnology comparative study of two or more cultures Intersubjective Meanings the shared public symbolic systems of a cultures communication Positivism the view that there is a reality out there that can be detected through the senses and that theres an appropriate scientific method for investigation. Reflexivity critically thinking about the way one thinks, reflection on ones own experience Creole Language a stable language originated from pidgin language Pidgin Language a language with no native speakers that develops in a single generation between 2 distinct native languages Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis theory that our thoughts and behaviours are determined by language Internal Consumption consumption to provide for basic human needs External Consumption (aka ecological), consumption due to environment and climate Cultural Consumption consumption for the purpose of cultural meanings and practices Conspicuous Consumption buying expensive shit to flaunt yourself Extensive Agriculture farmers clear and burn small plots of land Intensive Agriculture farmers depend on domestic animals, irrigation, and technology Balanced Reciprocity exchange where you expect a return of equal value within a time limit Generalized Reciprocity exchange where you expect a return without specifying when Negative Reciprocity exchange of goods and services in which one party is at a loss Marcel Mauss French anthropologist, compared non-capitalist gift exchange with impersonal commodity exchanges typical of a capitalist market Lecture 2 January 16 The Study of Culture Determinism the idea that our natures are determined by some fundamental element some possibilities: environment; genes/biology; culture Holistic perspective - No one factor determines how we think and act - There are no short boundaries between mind, body and environment - Instead, our ideas, thoughts, actions and behaviors are the product of multiple influences Anthropologists dont look for singular causes to social phenomenon, but recognize the complexity of our lives Applied anthropology - Uses information from any of the anthropological specialties to solve practical cross- cultural problems - This can include areas as diverse as health care and economic development to marketing an product design The concept of culture - The sets of learned behavior and ideas that human beings acquire as members of society o Human beings use culture to adapt and to transform the world in which they live o Culture is shared among members of social groups o Culture is rarely taught it is learned in the course of daily life by following the example of others o Culture is not to be confused with the arts or civilization it is something that al humans possess Ethnocentrism - The option that ones own way of life is natural, correct, and the only way of being human; the standard by which other cultures are to be judged Cultural relativism - Attempting to understand another culture in its own terms, and making the ideas and actions of members of that culture comprehensible Putting aside your own judgments can be one of the most challenging and unsettling features of anthropology rd January 23 , 2012 Doing Fieldwork Fieldwork an extended period of close involvement with the people whose lives we try to understand. Informants members of a particular culture we study who provide us with insights about their way of life. Anthropologists work with informants. Participant-Observation a method anthropologists use to gather information. We closely observe the lives of our informants, and participate in their activities as much as possible. Ethnography an anthropologists written or filmed description of a particular cultureEthnology the comparative study of two or more cultures. This class is an example of ethnology because we discuss so many different groups of people. Changing Approaches to Ethnographic Fieldwork Positivism (1920 - 1960s) modeled on the physical sciences study cultures objectively fieldwork is a living laboratory Methods make data numerical (measurements, census) systematic study entire culture anthropologist makes conclusions Reflexivity (1960s Today) recognize that humans are the subjects of research study cultures intersubjectively shared understandings fieldwork is interpretive Methods data can take many forms partial (cannot study everyone) conclusions are produced with informants Reflexivity demands the anthropologists become deeply involved with the people
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