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BIOL 1003
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Three domainsBacteria most diverse and widespread prokaryotesArchaeathe prokaryotes that often live in earths extreamseukaryahave eukaryotic cells made of 4 kingdomesProtists kingdom plantae kingdom fungi kingdom animaliaThe dynamics of ecosystems include two major processes the recycling of chemical nutrients and the flow of energy Chap 23 P 30 questions Pagequestions 49living organisms are mostly comprised of O C H N in scans biologists often use radioactive tracers as they undergo chemical changes in an organism These chemicals can act as tags which accumulate in specific areas of the body Process of photosynthesis 6 co26 h2oc6h12066 02Buffers lower acidic changes Acidic precipitation threatens the environment In ocean acidification c02 disolves into seawater lowers ocean ph This co2 reacts with water to produce carbonic acid h2co3The first life may have evolved through four stages 1The abiotic nonliving synthesis of small organic molecules such as amino acids and nitrogenous bases 2The joining of these small molecules into polymers such as proteins and nucleic acids 3The packaging of these molecules into protocells droplets with membranes that maintained an internal chemistry different from that of their surroundings 4The origin of selfreplicating molecules that eventually made inheritance possible 1953 the miller urey experimentclosed glass system with vapourscarbon source electricity and condenser This would act as a mini earth All building blocks for complex molecules were producedamino acids fatty acids prymidines and purines sugars All organisms contain the smae macromolecules carbohydrates proteins lipids and nucleic acidsCore of these macromolecules is carbon earths organisms are 18carbon Carbohydrates These range from simple sugar molecules to large polysaccharidesMost simple sugars are monomers monosaccharidessuch as glucose fructose and disaccharides also considered simple sugars Mono saccharides can hook together to form polysaccharidescomplex carbohydratesMonosaccharides particularly glucose are the main fuel molecules for cellular work because cells release energy from glucose when they break it downAn aqueous solution of glucose often called sextrose may be injected into the blood stream the glucose provides an immediate energy source to tissues in need of repair Monosaccharides are used to form other kinds of organic molecules such as amino acids fatty acids Sugars which are not used in these forms can be sued in the production of polysaccharides or disaccharides Polysaccharides are macromolecules and polymers composed of thousands of monosaccharides These are held together by dehydration reactions Polysaccharides may function as storage molecules for starch and glycogen or as structural compounds like cellulose and chitin Starch a storage polysaccharide in plants consists entirely of glucose monomers Starch molecules coil into helical shape and may be unbranched or branched Starch granules serve as carbohydrate banks from which plant cells can withdraw glucose for energy or building matericals Glycogen is the anumal cell storage of glucose This is in the form of a different polysaccharideglycogen Most granules are stored in the liver and muscel cells which hydrolyze the glycogen to release glucose when its needed Cellulose is the most abundant organic compound on eath It is amajor component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells Cellulose is a polymer of glucose but its monomers are linked together in a different orientation Arranged parallel to each other cellulose molecules are joined together by hydrogen bonds Animals do not have enzymes that can hydrolyze the glucose linkages in cellulose therefore cellulose is not a nutrient for humans however it helps with digestive system Another structural polysaccharide is chitin it is used by insects and crustaceans to build their exoskeleton This can also be found in the cell walls of funji Humans use chitin to make stronge and flexible surgical threads that decompose after a wound or incision heals Lipids no monomers or structural unit common to all lipids they are all different hydrophobic is the only similar featureConsists mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by nonpolar covalent bondsThey are important for longeterm storage of energy ie fats phospholipids and steroids A fat is a large lipid made from 2 kinds of smaller molecules glycerol and fatty acids Glycerol is an alcohol with 3 carbons each bearing a hydroxyl group A fatty acid consists of a carboxyl group and a hydrocarbon chain usually 16 to 18 carbon atoms in length the glycerol and fatty acid are bonded by a dehydration reaction Synonom for fat is triglyceride The dehydration links the 3 fatty acid changes to the glycerol Some fatty acids contain one or more double bonds which cause kinds or bends in the carbon chain An unsaturated fatty acid had one fewer hydrogen atom in each carbon of the double bond Fatty acids with no double bonds in their hydrocarbon chain have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms are called saturated fatty acids Unsaturatedcause kinds of bends in carbon chain olive oilsSaturatedanimal fatsmax number of hydrogens straight line The kinks in unsaturated fatty acids precent fats containing them from packing tightly together and solidifying at room temp Corn oil olive oil and vegi oils are called unsaturated fats Saturated fats pack close together and solidifying at room temp Making butter and beef fat Hydrogenated vegi oil it means that unsaturated fats have been converted to saturated fats by adding hydrogen Hydrogenation also creates trans fatsSaturateshydrogenated oils trans fats are badPhospholipids are the major component of cell membranes Phospholipids are structurally similar to fats but contain only two fatty acids attached to glycerol instead of 3 It also has a phosphate head The fatty acid is hydrophobic and the phosphate head will bond with h20 Steroids are lipids in which the carbon skeleton contains four fused rings
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