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BIOL 1004
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Abstract Competition is one of the driving forces of evolution There are two different types of competition interspecific an intrarspecific Intraspecific competition is when two individuals of the same species compete over the same resource The intraspecific competition and its consequences Yodas law and law of constant yield were observed in spinach plants Spinacia vulgaris Three different pots of different spinach densities had their mean height mean weight total weight and their characteristics measuredThree research questions were stated does the density affect mean height and mean weight of the spinach plant do they follow Yodas law and do they follow law of constant yieldThe results suggested that density affects mean height and weight Also the spinach plants follow Yodas law and law of constant yield Therefore the spinach plants undergo intraspecific competition Moreover interspecific competition is when two different species compete over same resource Paramecium bursaria and Paramecium caudatumi species was test for interspecific competition by culturing in mixed and lone cultures Then the total number of organisms was found in both cultures The question was do the species undergo intraspecific competition It was found that they did not undergo interspecific competition since each species has its own realized niche IntroductionOrganisms affect one another through five types of interactions predation parasitism commensalism mutualism and competition Russell et al 2010Competition is when both organisms get affected and there are two types of competitioninterspecific and intraspecific Intraspecific competition is when two populations of the same species compete over the same recourse such as food or space Russell et al 2010There two laws that apply as a consequence of such a competition Yodas law and law of constant yieldBiology Department2011 The law of constant yield states that the total biomass stays constant throughout different densities of the species Yodas law states that one organism outcompetes the other in a crowded population such that the graph generated will have a 32 slope Biology Department 2011 Plants usually compete over space and nutrients while having unlimited access to water carbon dioxide and sunlight This doesnt enable the plants to coexist Moreover interspecific competition is when two populations of different species compete over the same resource Russell et al 2010 There are two mechanisms for interspecific to occur exploitive and interference competition Russell et al 2010In interference competition the species compete directly over limited resource which is usually asymmetric Russell et al 2010 In exploitive competition the species compete in directly by reducing or using the recourses more efficiently Russell et al 2010 Paramecium bursaria and Paramecium caudatum have different realized niche which enable them to coexist Russell et al 2010 Also they compete on the same food resourcebacteria but in different ways Russell et al 2010 Having a different realized niche implies that each specie use different recourses or the same recourse in a different way On the other hand the Gauss competitive exclusion principle states that
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