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[BIOL 1902] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (74 pages long)


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1902
Professor
Michael Runtz
Study Guide
Final

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Waterloo
BIOL 1902
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Class 1
Natural History
It is the observation of living plants and animals, and their interactions. Someone who looks at
Natural History is called a Naturalist.
Animal Defences
Appearances
Camouflage is concealment, meaning the thing is hidden from the observer.
- Background matching is hiding by matching the surrounding area.
- Sparrows have vertical lines on their body to help them blend into their
background, such as meadowlands.
- American Bittern camouflages using Background Matching
- Crypsis is hiding by not moving.
- Female Spruce Grouse camouflages using cryptic AND background
matching
- Eastern Screech Owl uses Crypsis AND Background matching
- Mimicry is copying the background of something.
- Gray Tree Frog camouflage by changing their color to match their background,
and is a Bark Mimic
- Seasonal Color is changing an animal’s color to match the appropriate season’s
background.
- Change Snowshoe Hares / Varying Hare change from brown to white for
winter, being pure white for winter, changing color to help them hide.
- Disruptive Patterns are patterns on the animal that breaks up an animal’s body into
parts, making it harder for predators to spot from a distance.
- Songbirds have eyelines / eye stripes helping them hide for example in trees
or certain plants. Helps them hide the part that is exposed when they are in their
nest, it breaks up the bird's head, making it harder to spot from above the nest or
at a distance.
- Kill Deer have lines on their breast to hide them, again using Disruptive
Patterns
- Canadian Goose have a white spot near their neck so the head seems apart
from the body, using Disruptive Patterns
- An angle-winged butterfly resembles a worn down leave. This is using the shape of
the body to camouflage themselves.
Class 2
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Masquerade (Type of Camouflage)
Camouflage does not work when you are not cryptic, i.e if the person is moving.
Being Cryptic means not moving, and not disrupting your camouflage.
Masquerade vs background matching: in background matching your color and your patterns
match the background, whereas Masquerade is having the shape of the something or modifying
the body to match the surroundings.
Shape can be used for camouflage too
Masquerade is changing the appearance to match the environment for camouflage, such as
looking like a dead leaf, or a live leaf.
- Dead Leaf Mimicry is resembling dead leaves (using masquerade)
- Moths do this
- Angle-winged butterflies use their shape to resemble dead leaves for
camouflage, there is also mimicry going on by mimicking the background (dead
leaf mimic) this is can be called Masquerade
- Live Leaf Mimicry is resembling live leaves
- A Katydid uses live leaf mimicry
- Luna Moths hide up in the leaves, using live leaf mimicry
- Twig Mimicry is resembling twigs
- Inchworm uses Twig Mimicry to resemble twigs to hide (form of Masquerade)
- Walking Stick insect also uses Twig Mimicry
- Thorn Mimicry is resembling thorns on twigs and such
- Tree Hoppers use Thorn Mimicry
- Bird Dropping Mimicry is resembling bird poop, animals tend not to eat bird poop
- Giant Swallowtail caterpillars use Bird Dropping Mimicry
- Animals using their surroundings and putting their surroundings on them for
camouflage/masquerade
- Camouflaged Loopers use the surroundings (such as plants) to cover their
body, hiding them from predators trying to find them.
- Spittle Bugs generate a frothy wet spit-like material called spittle to hide
themselves from predators
- Woolly Aphids create silk strains on top of themselves to conceal themselves
- Scarlet Lily Leaf Beetles Larvae (child form) coats itself with feces (poop) to
conceal itself, making it seem like poop and less appetizing.
Bicolored Camouflage
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