Study Guides (390,000)
CA (150,000)
Carleton (5,000)
BIOL (200)
Study Guide

BIOL 1902- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 32 pages long!)


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1902
Professor
Michael Runtz
Study Guide
Final

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 32 pages of the document.
Carleton
BIOL 1902
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Chapter 1: Staying Alive
Camouflage
Form of concealment
Common form of defense
Background matching
Animals appearance resembles its immediate surroundings
Ex. Vertical stripes on American Bittern help it hide in tall vegetation
Even more effective when animal remains cryptic
Ex. Forests are home to animals on the floor (Grouse), in the trees (Screech Owls,
Grey Tree Frogs), etc.
Appearance resembling bark or lichen are beneficial
Ex. Grey Tree Frogs can change from grey to green depending on the colour of
the tree they’re on
Disruptive colouration
Can take the form of distinctive markings and patterns on body
Song birds have dark eye bands to disrupt the shape of the head
Ex. Canada Geese have chinstraps
Coincidence disruptive patterns: Leopard frogs
Ex. Chipmunks and Raccoons exhibit disruptive bands as well
Bicolouration
Half the body is dark, half the body is light
Ex. Whirligigs must be masked from above and below
Birds also use it, the shadow from the body covers the light belly
Masquerade (shape camouflage)
Mimic their surroundings
Examples:
o Walking Sticks and Inchworms mimic twigs
o Treehoppers mimic thorns
o Giant Swallowtail Caterpillars mimic bird droppings
o Camouflaged Looper adds bits of tree bark to its body
Camouflage is not fail proof…
Scare off predators by looking like larger animals
Startle Patterns (bright colours)
Examples:
o Polyphemus =large fake eyes
o Frogs, snakes, moths
Startle Structures
o Ex. Giant Swallowtail Caterpillar use an Osmetarium (looks like a snakes
tongue)
Startle Behaviour
o Ex. Beavers slap their tails
Predator Habituation/ Deflection Patterns
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Over time predators may not react
Natural selection steps in
There are many different versions of species each with its own specific way of
scaring off predators
When varied colours and patterns appear at random predators are less likely to get
accustomed
When a predator recovers from a startle effect, it sometimes goes after the
coloured wing
This does not affect the moth because it is a non-vital body part
Ex. Five-Lined Skinks direct the assault of the predator. When the predator makes
contact with the skinks tail, it immediately falls off and thrashes around like its
alive. This distracts the predator so the lizard can get away.
Evolution
Driven by natural selection
Certain characteristics are favoured over others
These characteristics are passed on to offspring and help them survive
Gene flow through time
Animals
Physical Defense
Body Armour
o Millipedes, snails, turtles use hard shells to protect themselves
Ex. Blanding turtles can almost close the front part of their shells
Ex. Snapping turtles can’t pull inside their shell so they are more
aggressive
Soft structures
Ex. Tent caterpillars create webs and live in them so birds don’t eat them
Ex. Hairy caterpillars are disliked by birds (Woolly Bear caterpillars)
Stiff hair defense
Ex. Porcupines use tails to slap attacker and inject quills (modified guard hairs).
Quills are also coated with antibiotics and therefore can’t cause infection.
Chemical Defense
Poison spines
Ex. Io Caterpillar
o Poisonous spine caterpillars are usually bright coloured
Poisonous stinger
Ex. Wasps
Poisonous skin
Ex. Red eft
Warning colouration= Aposematic Colouration
Manufactured toxin
Ex. Lady bugs
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version