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Key_Terms_Natural_History GOOD COPY.docx

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Carleton University
BIOL 1902

Natural History KeytermsOld ReviewEndotherms warm blooded animals endure the cold heat is generated by internally called cellular metabolic activityEctotherms cold blooded animals cant endure the cold there temperature is controlled by the external environmentGlogers Rule white fur is a better insulator then brown fur or feathers because of the pigment in the skin helping keep in more heatAllens Rule animals up north have smaller extremities then those similar living in southern regionsBergmanns Rule SA V ratio as the surface area and volume is increased it is reduced by half making heat loss lower The closer the numbers are together the smaller the ratio a smaller ratio means less heat lost overallBatesian Mimicry When two animals bear a similar appearance with one the model being toxic or otherwise well defended and the other the mimic being harmlessMullerian MimicryA mimicry in which two or more animals share similar appearance and all honestly advertise some sort of potent defence for example Milkweed Beetles and Milkweed Bugs are not related yet share an aposematic appearance and both contain cardiac glycosides Dormancy a state of inactivity characterized by reduced metabolic activity and usually in some or all body temperature heart rate and respiratory rate lethargy torpor and hibernation are all types of dormancy Freeze Tolerant The ability to survive intercellular ice inside the body Ice between the cellsSupercool The lowering of liquids below its freezing temperature without it freezingNo ice between the cellsRete Mirabile countercurrent heat exchange that keeps the mallard ducks feet just above freezing without a large amount of heat Beavers have it in the base of their tail Also the blood brought back to the heart is prewarmedCold Hardy Plants become dormant there roots in soil under the snow Plants become cold hardy through acclimation For animals its called freeze tolerant1Torpor an animal lowers it body temperature to a controlled hypothermia when its starts getting low the animal shivers to bring it back up Short term dormancy Lethargy prolonged period of torpor where it last a few daysAutotomy easy loss of a limb that is usually but not always grown backTapetum Lucidum eye shine in animalsNew Key TermsThermalling When migrating birds such as hawks move by soaring up one thermal to a great height and gliding down the base of the next also known as thermal hoping Migration An annual twoway journey that is a primarily response to a predictable food shortageAntiFreeze ProteinsSpecial proteins that bind to microscopic ice crystals immediately stopping their growthObelisk A thermoregulatory posture adopted buy dragonflies in response to extreme heat obelisk involves raising the abdomen high into the air to shade the thorax and head and to reduce the surface area of the body that is in direct contact with sunlight Stilting A heatavoidance posture in TigerBeetles in which the body in elevated above the sand by the fully extended legs Panting Rapidly moving air in and out of the open mouth to increase evaporative coolingDetritus Organic debris such as dead leaves that animals consume Proboscis the elongated mouthparts of an insect often used to suck liquidsHyoid Process A cartilageand bone structure at the base of a woodpecker or hummingbirds tongue that is moved by muscles and ligaments causing the tongue to extend well beyond the tip of the beak Also known as the hyoid apparatus or hyoid hornsStylets bugs have probing mouth pieces Radula The rasping tool in the mouth of a gastropod that rips off pieces of plant material analogous to mammalian incisors2
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