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Natural History Notes.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 1902
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Natural History NotesStaying AliveDefensesCamouflageAnimals adapt to their environmentBandWinged Grasshoppers Their colour matches their environments rendering them invisibleIn the grasslands some birds grow vertical lines on them to hideRedwinged Blackbirds and American Bitterns bear striped plumage When alarmed Bitterns point their bills straight up for better camouflage in grasslandsSavannah Sparrows also sport brown stripes on their breasts for concealment In areas with trees it creates shady and light areas Animals fur will contrast to itRuffed Grouse stays at ground level and they are well hidden when they remain still because their plumage is contrasted like the forests Same goes for the Eastern Whippoor wills and the American WoodcockEastern ScreechOwls also exhibit contrasted feathers which matches the trees they inhabitLeopard Frogs blend in with the floating vegetationGray Tree Frogs have skin that resembles bark If that tree is covered in green lichen then their skin colour changes to match the colour of the treeSnow shoed hares are white during the winter and change brown during the summerStink bugs are green to blend in with the leaves they wander onDisruptive PatternsAn arrangement of suitably colored irregular shapes which when applied to the surface of an object is intended to enhance its camouflage Made to break up or disrupt the body of the animalHorned Larks dark bands across their breasts and faceKilldeer have breast and facial bandsChipmunks have facial markings and stripes down their backsRaccoons carry dark bands across their face that hides their eyes Wood Frogs Common Yellowthroats and Shorthorned Grasshoppers also have masksCanadian Geese have chinstraps which serve as disruptive patternBicolourationWhirligigs are dark on top so if a predator bird flies above them they are concealed They are also light on the bottom so fish peering upwards cant see them Backswimmers swim upside down so they are light on top and dark on the bottomDeer and Sandpipers are dark on the top half but white on the bottom All their predators are on the ground When the light shines on top of them it creates a shadow on their belly making them look 1D If they were the same colour the predators would see the animalMimicrySome animals bodies match their backgrounds in colour and formWalking Sticks and Inchworm Caterpillars look like twigs which is why they are twig mimicsTreehoppers have pricks which is why they are thorn mimicsAnglewing Butterflies are dead leaf mimicsThe caterpillars of Giant Swallowtails Bird Dropping Moths and Viceroys look much like bird poop making them bird poop mimicsMasquerade Animals will cover themselves in their environment to hideScarlet Lily Beetles cover themselves in their own feces to hide as poopCaddisfly Larvae create house that resemble debris on the groundCasebearers add plant fragments to their bodiesTortricid Caterpillars roll live leaves around themselvesSpindle Gall Mites and Gall Wasps live inside swellings on plantsDark Marathyssaa Moth lower their heads to look like twigsGreenpatched Loopers look like fragments of leavesPlan B Startle PatternsCamouflage doesnt always work so some animals have tricks up their sleevesSphinx and Underwing Moths look like tree bark but when they are about to fly or feel endangered they reveal their underwings which are bright and coloured The Sphinx underwings even look like big eyesRedbellied Snakes have bright orange belliesRingnecked Snakes has a bright yellow bottomGray Tree Frogs have bright yellow on their inner thighs that show when they leap
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