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Bio 1902 Midterm Notes.docx

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BIOL 1902
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Midterm Notes Natural History An observational science that involves looking at all living things Natural history knowledge is essential for assessments of ecosystems or habitats It is also one of the most enjoyable pursuits in the worldNaturalist One who studies Natural History Animals A Kingdom that includes Birds Reptiles Amphibians Fish Mammals Insects Spiders Clams and lots of other organismsNatural Selection the driving force behind evolutionIt consists of all the selective pressures placed on plants and animals by the environment such as wind cold or droughtabiotic or by animals such as predators or even members of the same speciesbioticThose poorly adapted do not survive to pass on their genes and those that are better adapted tend to survive and pass on their genes allowing the adaptation to persist into the future and possibly become more refinedNatural Selection was first recognized by Charles DarwinAdaptation any feature that offers a plant or animal an advantage in solving any life problem that give it a chance of surviving and reproducingAn adaptation is not an act of intelligence or a planned solution but a physical physiological or behavioural trait that has evolved because of the selective pressures of natural selectionNo adaptation is perfect and often an adaptation has drawbacks associated with it that require another adaptation to resolveThis makes Natural History interesting because never is there only one solution to any problem Instead many solutions have arisen to solve every challengeDefences of AnimalsA Physical CAMOUFLAGE colours and patterns that allow animals to blend into the background Crypsisthe art of concealment or remaining hiddencamouflage combined with motionless behaviourTypes of Camouflage1Background MatchingHaving the same general patterns and colours as the immediate environment ExamplesFor sundappled forest habitats blotches and earthtoned colours help animals hideExamplesground nesting birds such as female grouse also female ducks Whitetailed Deer fawnsGray Tree Frog also changes its colourthe only other animal we have that changes colour is a Snowshoe Hare but they do that seasonally not every time they are placed on a different background as Gray Tree Frogs doDifferent habitats require different patterns for camouflageMarshes and grasslands are dominated by vertical linesMany animals sport stripes and streaks in these habitatsExamples In grassland habitatssparrows such as Savannah SparrowFor marshescattailAmerican Bittern2 Disruptive Patterns Patterns that break up the general form of an animal making it hard to seeExamplesEyelines and eyestripes on songbirds especially important when sitting on nests Breast bands on Killdeer Horned LarksNecklace on Common Loons neckStripes and lines on Eastern Chipmunks back and faceLeopard frogshind legs fold up against the body The markings on the body line up with lower and upper parts of leg to create continuous pattern 3 Bicoloration having a twotoned body usually dark above and light below often seen on animals that live near the surface of pondsAllows for background matching from two directionsExamples Water Boatmen BackswimmersWhirligigs note white upper parts and dark bottomthey swim upside down4 Countershading The self shadow concealment principle Having a dark upper surface that shades a pale lower surface that when viewed from the sideThis makes an animal appear flat and not threedimensionalNOTEThis is NOT background matchingExamples Whitetailed Deer sandpipers and many birds including some hawks5 Masquerade Background Mimicry Having the same physical appearance as part of the environmentExamples are twig mimics Walking Sticks Inchworm caterpillars thorn mimics Treehoppers bark mimics Gray Tree Frog fold their front legs under their chest Eastern ScreechOwl dead leaf mimics Anglewing butterflies certain moths live leaf mimics Luna Moths6 Masquerade looking like Nonbackground Objects usually inedibleHaving shapes and colours or patterns that resemble something that is not part of the general background and is inedibleSpit or frothExample SpittlebugsScarlet lily beetleslarvae Bird poopExamples Birddropping Moths Viceroy Butterfly caterpillarsWhen camouflage and cryptic behaviour fails some animals have a second defence or Plan BStartle Patterns Bright colours and patterns that when exposed startle the predator giving time for the animal to escapeExamplesBright yellow on inside of legs of Gray Tree FrogBright hind wings of Bandwinged GrasshoppersBright hind wings of Underwing MothsEyespots on Sphinx Moth hind wingsHuge eyespots on Io Moth and Polyphemus Moth hind wingsRedbellied snakebright orange belly Ringnecked snakebrilliant yellowDistraction Patterns Patterns that serve to distract or deflect a predators attention to a nonvital body partThese are often but notalways Startle Patterns also
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