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Midterm

BIOL 1902 midterm notes.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 1902
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
BIOL 1902Midterm 1Camouflage Colours and patterns that allow animals to blend into the backgroundCrypsis Art of concealment or remaining hidden Camouflagemotionless behaviourBackground Matching and Disruptive PatternsOnly works if the animal remains completely still CrypticBackground Matching Having the same general patterns and colours as the immediate environmentExamples Gray Tree Frog changes colour Snowshoe Hare Changes seasonally long and short tailed weasels Background Matching in Grasslands Savannah Sparrow Lebrons fianc in GrasslandsBackground Matching Examples in Marshes American Bittern American BittieDisruptive Patterns Patterns that break up the general form of an animal making it hard to seeExamples Eyelines and eyestripes on Songbirds Breastbands on Killdeer birds Necklace on Common Loons neck Srtipes and lines on Eastern Chipminks back and face Neck stripe on a Canada GooseBicolouration Having a two toned body that is usually dark above and light below often seen on animals that live near the surface of ponds Allows for background matching fromtwo directionsExamples Water Boatmen BackswimmersWhirligigs Countershading Self Shadow Concealment Having a dark upper surface that shades a pale lower surface that when viewed from the side makes animal seem flat and not three dimensional Examples Whitetailed deer Sandpiper bird and birds including some HawksMasquerade Background Mimicry Having the same physical appearance as part of the environment Examples Twig Mimics Walking sticks inchworms caterpillars treehoppers thorn mimic Gray tree frog bark mimic Eastern Screech Owl bark mimicAnglewing Butterflies Dead Leaf Mimic Certain Moths Dead Leaf mimic Luna Moths Live Lead mimicMasquerade Having shapes and colours or patterns that resemble something not part of the background and is inedible Examples Spittlebugs Spit Birddropping moths and Viceroy Butterfly Caterpillars Bird poopStartle Patterns Bright colours and patterns that when exposed startle the predator giving time for the animal to escape Examples Bright yellow on inside of legs of gray tree frog Bright hind wings on BangWinged grasshoppers and underwing moths Eyespots on sphinx moth hind wings Huge eyespots on Io Moths and Polyphemus Moth hind wings RingNecked Snake yellow belly and ring on neckDistraction Deflection Patterns Patterns that serve to distract or deflect a predators attention to a nonvital body part often but not always startle patternsExamples Some butterflies have fake antennae on hind wings that serve to distract or deflect Tailed blue butterfly Swallowtail butterfly and Fivelink Skink Blue tailPermanent eyespots never hidden can be used to fool a predator into thinking the animal is bigger than it really is Examples Eye Elater beetle and Tiger Swallowtail CaterpillarDistraction PatternsDisguise through behaviour Some animals add bits of environment to body to disguise masquerade artistsleaf rollers caddisfly larvae And sumac gall aphidsAnimal Physical Defence Body Armour Hard Exoskeleton Many Beetles millipedesShell formed from internal skeleton Turtles Blandings turtles can partially close its shellHard shells formed from calcium Snails clamsSilk webs Eastern tent caterpillar fall webwormLong body hairs Many caterpillars Gypsy moth woolly bearBody Hair Guard hair modified into quills porcupinePoison Spines Hairs that are branched and tipped with toxins animals who have stiff hairs with poison tips Examples Monkey slug Io moth caterpillar aposematic colouration Aposematic warning colouration being brightly coloured to warn others of your defencesChemical Defences Are found and released by a variety of body parts Examples Milk weed beetle has poison in the body and is brightly coloured
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