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NaturalHistoryFinalStudyNotes .doc

34 Pages

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BIOL 1902
Michael Runtz

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Chapter 2 MigrationIn subzero temperatures what the 2nd problem for winter active animalsmobility because precipitation builds snow and snow can get pretty deepWhat a physical adaptation to solve mobility problembig feet Ex SnowShoe large SA feet long legs Ex Moose 2 M high at the shoulderWhat animals have large hind feetsnowshoe haresMartens Weasels Lynx have all four feet oversizedWhat kind of feet so Deer haveCaribousall 4 feet Do birds have snowshoesgrow hair on the toes in autumn Ex Ruffle Grouse What have the Behavioural AdaptionsSubnivean SpaceMove Ex White tailed Deer move to a sheltered area with less snowWhat do the Mooses long legs allow it to doWalk through the deepest of snowWhere do Whitetailed deer commonly yardHemlock and White CedarWhat identifies a Deer yarda Browse linea distinct lineWhat the wolves behavioural Adaptationin snow they travel in a single file and one breaks the trail and the rest step on the footsteps of othersWhy do Otters have short legsthey slide on their beliesthey toboggan to get placesMink can also use their bodies as toboggansWhats an overall solution to sub zero temperaturesMigratingWhere do Monarchs migrate toCanada to Mexico Only fly during the day they never comebackthe great grand children fly backWho discovered that Monarchs migrate to MexicoDrFred Oakward What other insect migratesA fireflies Ex Green DarnerWhat birds migrate and travel tremendous distancesSouth AmericaBrazil PeruEx Scarlet Tanagers fly to BrazilArctic Tern ex World Champion Migratory Bird fly Arctic to Antarctica they stop in Africa 20000 km roundtrip each year A red knot flew 26 700 kilometers roundtrip 5100 km in 8 days straightAs they have more distance less weight fasterWhat animals do not use too much energyHawks migrate without using much energythermal hoponly migrate during the daytimeBounding is also used to conserve heatCanada Geese form Vshaped flocks to save energyeach bird lines itself up with the outer wingtip of the bird ahead Lift upward movement of air created by the wing ahead 12 savings in energy when do songbirds migrateduring the night fewer predatorslower risk of dehydration energy efficient flight pectoral flight muscles release heat What other bird migrate in the daytimeHummingbirdsfeed on nectar of flowers as they goBlackbirdsWhat is the fuel of choice for all migratorsFatbecause it does not require additional water to be stored for its metabolism per gram it produces twice as much Excess Fat cannot be carried through nesting season what do birds do they create fat stores howundergo hyperphagiaan increase in appetiteWhat ishyperlipogenesis the ability of their bodies to convert rich foods to fat store Semipalmated Sandpipers double their body weight in how many days 10 days they eat fat rich corophium Where do they go after loaded with fuelSouth America 3000 km flightWhat is a remarkable solution to cold temperatures and a predictable shortage of foodmigrationwitch animal that leave their winter yard also leave evidence of their preference for Eastern White CedarDeer A migrating butterfly that will not return but their grandchildren will areMonarch ButterfliesHow do monarchs find their way suns position as a reference with internal clocks adjusting for differing times of dayWhat do nocturnal birds usestars and moonIndigo buntings use constellations for navigation when was this learned or is it innateIt is learned during their development Whether a bird flys day or night what is very important in migrationmagnetic fieldrhodopsin a photoreceptor in the retina is involved with electromagnetic interaction for it has been shown to have magnetoreceptive properties Ex Northern Parula What is the process that reveals migration secrets Banding Ex how long they live where they migrate when it was capturedHazards of migrationinsufficient foodfaulty navigation systeminclement weather stopovers Heat can also cause an animal to dehydraterise external core temp to a lethal temp affects protein structureWhat are the problems that plants face in subzero temperatures freezingice inside the cells kills plantsHow do they survivedormancyCold HardyWhat is a benefit for plants to go in the soilwarmer with the snow on top What do plants do to become cold hardytake excess water from leaves and twigs and evaporatedcells have water they pull water out of the cell more concentrated lowers freezing temperature Adds sugar to the cell unsaturated fatty acids makes it flexibleice forms bw the cells inside the cells the freezing point is lowered but no antifreezeHow do Plants become cold hardythrough Acclimation2 stage process change in the photoperiod ratio of day and darkphytochromes light sensitive photopigments cells goes dormantmake the plant sensitive to low tempsSecond stage is triggered by cold temperature 010 Csome trees are cold hardy to 80CKeeping needles creates new problems solar radiationWhat helps leaves withstand damage from the sunSolution xanthophyll pigmentsCalcium oxalate crystals which is an example that turns up the heat
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