NaturalHistoryFinalStudyNotes .doc

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11 Apr 2012
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Chapter 2 Migration
In subzero temperatures what the 2nd problem for winter active animals?
mobility
because precipitation builds snow and snow can get pretty deep
What a physical adaptation to solve mobility problem?
big feet Ex. SnowShoe large SA feet
long legs Ex Moose 2 M high at the shoulder
What animals have large hind feet?
snowshoe hares
Martens Weasels
Lynx have all four feet oversized
What kind of feet so Deer have?
Caribous all 4 feet
Do birds have snowshoes?
grow hair on the toes in autumn
Ex. Ruffle Grouse
What have the Behavioural Adaptions?
Subnivean Space
Move Ex. White tailed Deer move to a sheltered area with less snow
What do the Moose's long legs allow it to do?
Walk through the deepest of snow
Where do White-tailed deer commonly yard?
Hemlock and White Cedar
What identifies a Deer yard?
a Browse line
a distinct line
What the wolves behavioural Adaptation?
in snow they travel in a single file and one breaks the trail and the rest step on
the footsteps of others
Why do Otters have short legs?
they slide on their belies ‘they toboggan to get places
Mink can also use their bodies as toboggans
Whats an overall solution to sub zero temperatures?
Migrating
Where do Monarchs migrate to?
Canada to Mexico
Only fly during the day, they never comeback
the great grand children fly back
Who discovered that Monarchs migrate to Mexico?
Dr.Fred Oakward
What other insect migrates?
A fireflies Ex. Green Darner
What birds migrate and travel tremendous distances?
South America , Brazil, Peru
Ex. Scarlet Tanagers fly to Brazil
Arctic Tern, ex- World Champion Migratory Bird
fly Arctic to Antarctica. they stop in Africa 20,000 km roundtrip each year.
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A red knot flew 26, 700 kilometers round-trip. 5100 km in 8 days straight
As they have more distance less weight= faster
What animals do not use too much energy?
Hawks migrate without using much energy
thermal hop
only migrate during the daytime
Bounding is also used to conserve heat
Canada Geese form V-shaped flocks to save energy
each bird lines itself up with the outer wingtip of the bird ahead
Lift” upward movement of air created by the wing ahead
12% savings in energy
when do songbirds migrate?
during the night
fewer predators
lower risk of dehydration
energy efficient flight (pectoral flight muscles release heat)
What other bird migrate in the daytime?
Hummingbirds
feed on nectar of flowers as they go
Blackbirds
What is the fuel of choice for all migrators?
Fat
because it does not require additional water to be stored for its metabolism per
gram it produces twice as much
Excess Fat cannot be carried through nesting season what do birds do they create
fat stores how?
undergo hyperphagia ( an increase in appetite).
What is hyperlipogenesis
the ability of their bodies to convert rich foods to fat store
Semipalmated Sandpipers double their body weight in how many days ?
10 days
they eat fat rich corophium
Where do they go after loaded with fuel?
South America 3000 km flight
What is a remarkable solution to cold temperatures and a predictable shortage of
food?
migration
witch animal that leave their winter yard also leave evidence of their preference for
Eastern White Cedar?
Deer
A migrating butterfly that will not return but their grandchildren will are?
Monarch Butterflies
How do monarchs find their way ?
sun’s position as a reference with internal clocks adjusting for differing times of
day
What do nocturnal birds use?
stars and moon
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Indigo buntings use constellations for navigation when was this learned? or is it in-
nate?
It is learned during their development
Whether a bird fly’s day or night what is very important in migration?
magnetic field(rhodopsin a photoreceptor in the retina is involved with electro-
magnetic interaction for it has been shown to have magneto-receptive proper-
ties) Ex. Northern Parula
What is the process that reveals migration secrets ?
Banding Ex how long they live, where they migrate, when it was captured.
Hazards of migration?
insufficient food
faulty navigation system
inclement weather
stopovers
Heat can also cause an animal to ?
dehydrate
rise external core temp to a lethal temp affects protein structure
What are the problems that plants face in subzero temperatures?
freezing
ice inside the cells kills plants
How do they survive?
dormancy
Cold Hardy
What is a benefit for plants to go in the soil?
warmer with the snow on top
What do plants do to become cold hardy?
take excess water from leaves and twigs and evaporated
cells have water they pull water out of the cell. more concentrated, lowers freez-
ing temperature
Adds sugar to the cell
unsaturated fatty acids makes it flexible
ice forms b/w the cells inside the cells the freezing point is lowered (but no an-
tifreeze)
How do Plants become cold hardy?
through Acclimation
2 stage process,
change in the photoperiod ratio of day and dark
phytochromes= light sensitive photopigments
cells goes dormant
make the plant sensitive to low temps
Second stage is triggered by cold temperature (0-10 C)
some trees are cold hardy to -80C.
Keeping needles creates new problems?
solar radiation
What helps leaves withstand damage from the sun?
Solution: xanthophyll pigments
Calcium oxalate crystals which is an example that turns up the heat?
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