BIOL 2104 Study Guide - Final Guide: Pteridine, Ommochrome, Salivary Gland

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Ioana D. 2010
Genetics BIO 2133 lab exam review
Lab #1 - Introduction to Flylab
- It’s a simulation program that helps us investigate various aspects of Mendelian genetics
- We can study the mode of transmission of various mutations in Drosophila melanogaster(fruit fly)
- All traits in Fly lab are either dominant or recessive
- Incomplete dominance CANNOT be studied using this simulation
- We can cause phenotypic changes in the fruit fly: bristles, body color, antennal form, eye color, etc.
- When selecting a mutation the mutation you select will always be homozygous unless the trait is lethal in the
homozygous condition. In this case, FlyLab generates a fly that is heterozygous four that mutation
- Only 1 allele per trait can be chosen
*Design* - allows selection of the phenotypes of males and females
- after selection of flies we must choose ’10 000 flies’ for the # of offspring we want to produce
- the total # of offspring may not be exactly 10 000 b/c of FlyLab built-in experimental error
- chi square analysis helps us test hypothesis: e.g if the total chi square is less than the critical chi square
provided to us ( i.e 0.05, n-1 degrees of freedom), we cannot reject the hypothesis
**Understand genetic notation
A) Monohybrid cross:
RI - + (that means female is RIRI and male is RI+RI+)
P generation : RI RI x RI+RI+
F1 generation
All offspring are heterozygous
RI
RI
RI+
RI RI+
RI RI+
RI+
RI RI+
RI RI+
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Ioana D. 2010
F2 generation: RI+RI x RI+ RI
RI+
RI
RI+
RI+RI+
RI+RI
RI
RI+RI
RI RI
Phenotypic ratio: 1:2:1
B) Dihybrid cross
SV RI (that means the female is SV SV RI+RI+ and the male is SV+SV+ RI RI )
*each parent can only give only one type of gamete in this case. So we only have 1 possible offspring
phenotype
P generation: SV SV RI+RI+ x SV+SV+ RI RI
F1 generation:
SV+RI
SV RI+
SV+SV RI+RI
All offspring are heterozygous
F2 generation: SV+SV RI+RI x SV+SV RI+RI
SV+ RI+
SV+ RI
SV RI+
SV RI
SV+ RI+
SV+SV+ RI+RI+
SV+SV+ RI+RI
SV+SV RI+RI+
SV+SV RI+RI
SV+ RI
SV+SV+ RI+RI
SV+SV+ RIRI
SV+ SV RI+RI
SV+SV RI RI
SV RI+
SV+SV RI+RI+
SV+SV RI+RI
SV RI+
SV SV RI+RI
SV RI
SV+SV RI+RI
SV+SV RI RI
SV SV RI+RI
SV SV RI RI
Phenotypic Ratio: 9:3:3:1
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Ioana D. 2010
Trihybrid cross:
+ - SV, SS, EY This means, in P generation
Females: SV+SV+ SS+ SS+ EY+EY+ x males: SV SV SS SS EY EY
In the F1 generation, just like before, all offspring will be heterozygous: i.e SV+SV SS+ SS EY+ EY
In the F2 generation, we cross SV+SV SS+ SS EY+ EY x SV+SV SS+ SS EY+ EY
SV+SS+EY
SV+SS EY
SV+ SS EY+
SV SS+ EY+
SV SS+ EY
SV SS EY+
SV SS EY
SV+SS+EY+
Etc…..
SV+SS+EY
SV+SS EY
SV+ SS EY+
SV SS+ EY+
SV SS+ EY
SV SS EY+
SV SS EY
We have 8 possible gametes, b/c we have 3 genes found in heterozygous state: 23 = 8
Ratio: 27:9:9:9:3:3:3:1 (this should all add up to 64)
Lab 2a Flylab -testcrosses
- An organism that displays a dominant phenotype may be either a homozygous or heterozygous
genotype.
- To conduct a testcross, we need to take a fly of unknown genotype and cross it with a fly that is
homozygous recessive for that trait
- Female fly has one mutation, male has a different mutation
Select an F1 female fly and cross it with a male fly that has both mutations
AP SE
Female : APAP SE+SE+ x Male: AP+AP+ SE SE
F1 cross offspring: AP+AP SE+SE
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