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Carleton University
BIOL 2303

VirusesGeneral Structure and functionsNucleic acid core surrounded by proteinaceous capsomeres that form a capsid Exist in intra and extra cellular state A virion refers to a complete viral particle Caspid used for protection for viral nucleic acid and a means by which viruses attach to hosts cellsSome capsomeres only made of one protein or of multiple protein NucleocaspidNucleic acidcapsidSome virions have a phospholipid membranecalled an envelope that envelopes surrounding nucleocaspid The capsid or envelope provides protection and recognition sites to bind to complementary chemicals on host cells Once inside the capsid is removed Still a virus because of nucleic acid Viruses can exist as DNA or RNA where as every cell is dsDNA Viral genomes are much smaller than cell genomes Viruses only infect particular hosts Specificity due to precise affinity of viral surface proteins or glycoproteins for completmentary proteins or glyproteins on the surface of host cellEXAMPLE HIV ATTACKS HELPER TLYMPHOCYTES AND NO EFFECT ON BONES OR MUSCLE CELLSSome viruses are generalistsEXAMPLE WEST NILE VIRUS INFECTS BIRDS MAMMALS AND REPTILESBacteriaphagevirus that infects a bacteria outnumber all othersPlant virusesIntroduced by abrasions of cell wall or plant parasites nematodes aphids Fungal virusesExist only within cells no extracellular stateDiff shapes of virions Helical Polyhedral complex Helical Spiral fashion tube around Nucleic acidPolyhedral Roughly spherical geodesic dome Most common type of polyhedral capsid is ICOSAHEDRON 20 sides
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