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Natural History Lecture Notes.docx

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Department
Biology
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BIOL 2903
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BIOL2903VNaturalHistoryofOntario1Lecture1January62014ReadfirstfewchaptersofthenatureofOntarioforthenextfewdaysPlantsfloraAnimalsfaunaBiodiversitybiologicaldiversityoTotalnumberandvarietyfaunaANDfloraoflivingthingsfoundinanareaDifferentspeciesandformsinagivenareaOntariosbiodiversityoReptilesandamphibiancalledHerptilesHerpscollectivelyoInvertebratesbugsincludingbutterfliestensofthousandsoWhysucharichbiodiversityLotsofwaterBiglandmass2Sizemorethan1millionkmGreatrangeofABIOTICFACTORSnonlivingfactorsEnvironmentalconditionsoExTemperatureshugerangeoExPrecipitationsomepartsofONaredryandsomearewetoExSoiltypeoExWindReproductionandseeddispersionplantsfireoExFirecanbenefitsomeplantsoExBedrocktherockthatliesbeneaththesoilunderthegroundRocksaremadeofmineralsthataffectthenutrientsupplyandsoilchemistryDifferentbedrockdifferentmineralsdifferentplantsdifferentanimalsBedrockNatureguidetoOntariooSomebedrockisflatandlayeredTheserocksareformedfromsedimentscalledSEDIMENTARYROCKScausedfromabigbodyofwaterbeingthereandthendryingawaytheyrefromflatareasLIMESTONEisamajorsedimentaryrockinONoWeuseittocutupintoblocksbecauseitsfoundinlayersoRichincalciumanditsrelativelysoftandbasicinpHCalciumisoneofthemostimportantmineralsforcertainrocksTypetextTypetextTypetextSofterodesquickerthanotherkindsofrocksovertimeoHCLaciderodesrocksasseeninclassoSomelimestoneismadefromanimalswhosefossilremainarefullofcalciumThemajorityofflatrocksthatarelimestonecontaineithercalciumorfossilremainthatarefullofcalciumItbubblesandeffervesceswhenyouaddHCLCalciphilesplantsthatlovecalciumExpoisonivylovesbasicfoilandcalciumoOtherrockarenotlayeredandwereformedfrommoltenrockmagmadeepundergroundcalledIGNEOUSROCKSUsuallylackscalciumhaslotsofsilicaItshardandacidicdontdissolveveryeasilyVerydurabletakealongtimetobreakdownDontreleasemanynutrientssoilisnotfedmineralslackscalciumandothermineralsthatislockedinsidetheigneousrockManyigneousrocksarepinkGraniteisacommonigneousrockBunchberrythrivesinacidicsoilseebigpocketsgrowingunderneaththesoilisprobablyigneousrockSomerocksareformedontopoftheearthssurfaceinsteadofbeneaththeearthfrommoltenstuffbecauseofvolcanoesExLakeSuperiorBasaltvolcanicrockNOTACIDICoPlantsthatlikemorebasicconditionslikecalciumgrowinthesespotsoSomerocksareformedfromexistingrockPutpressureandheatontherocksmakesthechemistrychangethemineralsthatarealreadytheretransformcalledMETAMORPHICROCKSMetamorphicrocksretainthechemicalcharacteristicsofitsparentrockAllthesamemineralsaretherebutinadifferentorientationExwhenyouapplyheatandpressuretoGRANITEitbecomesGNEISSwhichisacidicandlackscalciumoHavevastareasofONwhereyouhavegraniteorgneissoItsstillhardandacidicnocalciumcarbonateExwhenyouapplyheatandpressuretoLIMESTONEitbecomesMARBLEwhichcontainscalciumoItwilleffervescelikelimestonedoesBIOL2903VNaturalHistoryofOntario3oRockscangiveRELIEFachangeiselevationThelandisnolongerflatithashillsandelevationReliefcreatesMICROCLIMATESYoufindawhilegradientoftemperatureandmoistureregimesinreliefareasprovidesawholevarietyofdifferentsituationsforplantstogrowinhelpsincreasebiodiversityoExLakeSuperiorGLACIALDEPOSITSlieontopofthebedrockoGlaciersaremassivemountainsoficethatspreadandspreadoMaterialsdroppedbytheglacierscreatedifferenttypesofmaterialsontopofthebedrockinONTypeofmaterialdiffersfromwhetheraglacialriverdroppeddownortheglacieritselfWaterdroppedthebigmaterialandsettleddownthefinermaterialleavinguswithsandThelayofthelandandtheglacialgiftsaffectdrainageandthistheplantsthatgrowinanareaWaterisoneofthemostpowerfulforcesinONoCanmovelargematerialssortsthembysizeandweightExmovesrocksandsortthembysizeandshapeboulderpebblebeachesoGLACIALERRATICarockdepositedontopofanotherrockoWatercandissolverockandreleaseitsmineralsoRockcanalsobebrokendownbywaterwhenitturnstoiceandbyplantrootsDependingonthebedrockigneoussedimentarythereisabigdifferenceinwhathappenstothesoilformedfromitAllthesefactorscombineorhavecombinedtocreateuniquesituationsthatinfluencethetypeofplantsandanimalsthatliveinanyregionofONoExbedrockwatertemperatureregimewindprecipitationetcoAlleffectswhatgrowsinwhatareasoInanyareatheplansandanimalsaffectotherlivingthingsBIOTICFACTORSlivingfactorsExplantsmodifytheenvironmentandeffectwhatgrowsthereABIOTICFACTORSnonlivingfactorsThetypeofrockandthetypeofglacialdepositsontopoftherockiswhysomepartsofONareflatExHudsonsBayAreaandothersarehillyExAlgonquinParkPHYSIPGRAPHICREGIONSrocktypeandlayofthelandoExHudsonBayLowlandveryflatCanadianShieldveryhillyGreatLakesSaintLawrenceLowlandareaLowlandsareformedontopoflimestonerockCanadianshieldhassomeofthecountrysoldestrocks
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