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BIOL 3306 - The Brain Notes

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BIOL 3306
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THE BRAIN Functional anatomy of brain and cranial nervescharacteristics of typical brain o weight3lbs o volume12LDEVELOPMENTneural tube is derived from the ectodermo in middle of neural tube is the neurocoel which is fluidfilled 3 separate regions at 34week stageo mesencephalon midbrain prosencephalon forebrain rhombencephalon hindbrainthese are the 3 primary brain regions in early development o this is because the neurocoel is getting closed off at different points forming these distinct regions o pressure buildup occurs in different regions because neurocoel still fluidfilled causes swelling and triggers cell division in these regionsneurospecialized cells 5week stage o 3 primary brain regions shift positions relative to each othero green regionmesencephalon and stays relatively the same does not develop into separate regions like the other primary brain regionso secondary brain regions formed from the primary brain regions prosencephalon splits into diencephalon thalamus and telencephalon cerebrum mesencephalon midbrain still rhombencephalon metencephalon develops into cerebellum pons myelencephalon develops into medulla oblongatacontinuous with the spinal cordBrain development o increasing complexity the further you get toward the cranial endA lateral view of the brain of an embryo after 4 weeks of development showing the neural tube Mesencephalon Diencephalon covered by covered by Rhombencephalon Mesencephalon Cerebrum cerebrum cerebrum Spinal cord Prosencephalon Neurocoel A lateral view of the brain of a 5weekold embryo Prosencephalon Rhombencephalon Pons Metencephalon Myelencephalon Medulla Diencephalon oblongata Cerebellum Spinal cord Telencephalon Spinal Brain development in a child showing cord the cerebrum covering other portions of the brainMAJOR BRAIN REGIONSbrainstem o medulla pons midbraino ponsbridge a relay station that projects information from medulla to rest of brain and vice versaalso connection between brainstem and the cerebellum connects cerebellum with rest of the braino midbraindeals with auditory and visual input any reflexes associated with these sensory functions is controlled by the midbrain also projects a lot of information further up into the CNSo cerebellum NOT part of brainstem connected to it by the pons thalamus o receives sensory information sends visualauditory to midbraino also projects up to the primary visual primary auditory corticeso it is the most complicated sensory processing station o the link between the cortex and the entire rest of the body fissuresdeep grooves that subdivide hemisphereso pattern remains fairly constant between individuals gyrisulci are variablegyrifolds and increase in SA sulciseparates the gyri with a slight depressiono certain sulci ALWAYS present Major brain regionsFissures Gyri Sulci SpinalThalamus cord Cerebellum Medulla oblongata Pons MidbrainVentriclesso what happens to this neurocoel regionVentricles circulate CSF All ventricles are continuous Occlusions disappear Lateral ventricles o Connected to third venctricle via intraventricular foramen cnnxnThird ventricle tho Drains through aqueduct duct in midbrain connects to 4 ventricleFourth ventricle
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