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BUSI 2101 Study Guide - Final Guide: Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Job Satisfaction, Occupational Stress

Course Code
BUSI 2101
Ken Ferguson
Study Guide

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- Organizations: a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of a group of
people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of
goals; examples: schools, charities, sports teams, etc.
- Organizational behavior: a field of study that investigates the impact of
individuals, groups, and structure on behaviour within organizations; its purpose is to
apply such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness
- Basic OB model and the challenges at each level:
a) Challenges at the individual level:
- Individual differences
- Job satisfaction
- Motivation
- Empowerment: managers asked to share more of their power with their
employees; giving employees more responsibility for what they do
- Behaving ethically; ethics: study of moral values or principles that guide
our behaviours and inform us whether actions are right or wrong
b) Challenges at the group level:
- Working with others
- Workforce diversity: mix of people in organizations in terms of gender,
race, ethnicity, disability, sexual orientation, age, demographic characteristics, such as
education and socio-economic status; also generational mix
c) Challenges at the organizational level:
Use of temporary (contingent) employees
Improving quality and productivity: productivity: performance measure
including effectiveness (achievement of goals) and efficiency (ratio of effective work
output to the input required to produce the work)
Developing effective employees:
- Organizational citizenship: discretionary behaviour that is not
part of an employee’s formal job requirement, but that nevertheless promotes effective
functioning of the organization, ex. Staying late, helping others, etc.
Putting people first: “people first strategies
Helping employees with work-life balance
Creating positive work environmentcreates competitive advantage
Global competition
Managing and working in a multicultural world
Building blocks of OB:
a) Psychology: science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the
behaviour of humans and other animals
b) Social psychology: focuses on peoples’ influence on one another
c) Sociology: study the social system in which individuals fill their roles; studies
people in relation to their social environment or culture
d) Anthropology: study of societies to learn about human beings and their
activities; mainly focus on cultures and environments
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* OB looks at consistencies behaviour is generally predictable, and the systematic study
of behaviour is a means to making reasonably accurate predictions
* OB looks beyond common sense
- Systematic study: looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and
effects, and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence
Research methods in OB:
a) Field studies: real-life organizations
b) Laboratory studies: simulated and controlled settings
c) Case studies: in-depth studies of single situation
d) Survey studies: questionnaires and interviews in sample populations
e) Meta-analysis: statistics that pool results of different studies
*OB takes a contingency approach: considers behaviour in the context in which it occurs
*Ubuntu: South-American concept that emphasizes group well-being and social harmony
Fundamental of OB:
1-Considers multiple levels of an organization: individual, group, and
2-Built from the wisdom and research of multiple disciplines
3-Takes a systematic approach to the study of organizational phenomena; it
is research-based
4- Takes contingency approach to the consideration of organizational
phenomena recommendations depend on the situation
Perception: process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions in
order to give meaning to their environment
- The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important
- Manage people’s perceptions and you will manage their behaviors
Factors influencing perception:
- The situation: time, work setting, social setting
- The perceiver: attitudes, experience, motives, expectations, and interests
- The target: (object being perceived) novelty, size, motion, background, sounds,
and proximity
Attribution theory: when individuals observe behavior that seem atypical, they seek to
find out whether it is internally or externally caused; after observing the person’s
behaviour, we rely on three rules about behaviour to decide whether the cause is
attributed to internal or external causes:
i) Distinctiveness: considers whether the individual act similarly across a variety
of situations
- High (seldom): external cause
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- Low (frequently): internal cause
ii) Consensus: considers if everyone faced with a similar situation responds in the
same way; how often other people do this in similar situations
- High (frequently): external cause
- Low (seldom): internal cause
iii) Consistency: considers whether the individual has been acting in the same
way over time; how often the person did this in the past
- High (frequently): internal cause
- Low (seldom): external cause
Perception errors IMPORTANT EXAM:
a) Attributions can get distorted:
Fundamental attribution error: tendency to underestimate external
factors and overestimate internal factors when making judgments about the
behavior of others
Self-serving bias: tendency for individuals to attribute their own
successes to internal factors while blaming failures on external factors
b) Selective perception: people’s selective interpretation of what they see based
on their interests, background, experience and attitudes
c) Halo effect: drawing a general impression of an individual on the basis of a
single characteristic
d) Contrast/recency effect: concept that other people often influence our reaction
to one person we have recently encountered; ex. Evaluation of candidate in job interview
can be distorted as a result of their place in the interview schedule
e) Projection: attributing one’s own characteristics to other people; managers
may see people as more homogenous than they really are
f) Stereotyping: judging someone on the basis of ones perception of the group to
which that person belongs
- Heuristics: judgment shortcuts in decision-making
- Prejudice: an unfounded dislike of a person or group based on their
belonging to a particular stereotyped group
g) Central tendency: tendency to avoid extreme judgments
h) Perceptual defense: process of screening out, shutting down; ex. Not
acknowledging your boyfriend cheating on you
i) Implicit person theories: when you know a person has a certain characteristic,
you tend to interpret their behavior in a certain way
Power of perception:
- Self-fulfilling prophecy (or Pygmalion effect): concept that proposes a person
will behave in ways consistent with how he or she is perceived by others; expectations
may become reality
Personality: the stable patterns of behaviour and consistent internal states that determine
how an individual reacts to and interacts with others
- Personality tests are useful in hiring decisions
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