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Carleton University
CHEM 2204

AbstractThis experiment sets out to determine the identity of three unknown organic compounds within a mixture This is done through a series of separations and identification techniques such as fractional distillation refractive index analysis various chemical tests and an infrared analysisThe three compounds of unknown mixture 131 were found to be Diethylamine 2butanol and 2OctanoneDiethylamine 2Butanol2OctanoneFigure 1 Structures of the compounds present in unknown mixture 131IntroductionFor the separation part of this experiment fractional distillation is used This technique separates the compounds by there boiling points This is done through a distillation apparatus as seen in figure 2 The distillation apparatus basically heats the mixture until components of the mixture evaporate leaving the less volatile compounds in the distilling flask The vaporized compounds pass through a fractionating column not shown in the diagram where it may condense and reevaporate off of the numerous projections within the column Passing the vapor through the column is done to further differentiate the compounds present in the vapor ie excited molecules from less volatile compounds in the vapor are given a chance to release their excess energy and condense back into the mixture whiles the more volatile compounds are separated This results in the vapor leaving the column being richer in the more volatile compound The evaporated compound is then passed through a condenser condensed where it is condensed and collected in a receiving flask White and Buchanan 2003The distillates should be taken when the temperature indicated by the thermometer above the fractionating column remains at a constant temperature this temperature is the boiling point of the distillate Hill and Holman 1998 For the other compounds to be separated the temperature is increased In order to ensure purity of the distillates a chaser is taken A chaser is the distillate taken when the temperature of the vapor is changing ie the distillate taken whiles the less volatile compound is almost gone from the mixture and the other compound starts to evaporate The chaser could also be used to recover more compound if needed since it is basically a mixture of two compounds This is achieved by distilling the chase White and Buchanan 2003Repeat distillation of the distillates would give a better yield of each compound Hill and Holman 1998 For this process to accurately separate the compounds the boiling points of each compound should differ by 40C or more White and Buchanan 2003Since the compounds are now separated identification tests can be done The first of these identification tests should be the Infrared Analysis This is because this is the
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