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Classical Civilization
CLCV 1002
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Greek CivilizationCLCV 1002A The Classical period 429323 BCLasts from The Persian Wars 490479BC to the death of Alexander the great 323 BC The Persians never managed to take over the Greek World Although they never try to invade again they buy their way in using politics The Persian empire of Darius the Great 500 BC They occupy a hugely vast area compared to Greece The Greeks want the luxury of the Persian empire the cultural clash between Greece and Persia is a misconception The Ionian Revolt 499494 BC Milletus wants to escape the rule of Persia The leader of Milletus wants the help of Sparta but Sparta says no they then ask Athens for help the Athenians agree Together they take Sardis part of the Persian empire By 494 the Persians defeat the Ionians and sack Milletus because they cannot afford to have a revolt The battle of Marathon 490 BC Shortly after quelling the revolt the Persian king sent an army to punish the Athenians for participating in the revolt They arrive on the Marathon coast and anchor easilly in this location where they prepare for battle The Athenians know they are outnumbered by at least 21 and ask for help from any other Greeks especially Sparta The Spartans actually do send some military but the army only gets there a day after the battle The Athenians did end up being outnumbered by 21 but they won the battle by attacking hard and fast early in the morning The Persians get back on their ships and start sailing around the peninsula with the intention of sacking the city of Athens The Athenians march back to Athens and man the fortifications before the Persians arrive When the Persians arrive they realize the city is well fortified and go home The Invasion of Xerxes 482479BC Xerxes gathered a quarter million men and 1200 ships with the intention of conquering Greece He set his army on land and set his navy to support it The army made their way around the coast with the navy simply there to assure the Greeks cant attack as the Persians progress The Greek reaction is late and panicked At this point there are almost 200 city states in the Greek world and no more than 30 states decided to oppose the Persian invasionmost of these being allies of the Spartans Athens was also on this side because the Persians did not offer surrendering as an option for them Their grand total was 100000 troops and 350 shipsThe Greeks realized they were seriously outnumbered They decide that their only hope is to defend the narrow passways where their troops could funnel the Persians to hold them off Their strategy was not to win but to hold the enemy offThe Persians are already in Greece by the time the Greeks decide where they are going to defend from They decide to defend the Southern part of Thessaly in Thermopylai The battle of Thermopylai 480 BC The Greeks had an army of at least 7000 hoplites which is a substantial force defending the passway at Thermopylai headed by King Leonidas of Sparta They had at least 700 Thespians and 400 Thebans He is betrayed by some of his troops so it ends in disaster The Persians gained control of Athens and some other parts of Greece Herodotus Main source of info on the battle of ThermopylaiThe Battle of Salamis 480 BC The Greeks lure the Persians into the narrow at Salamis and defeat the Persians Xerxes takes his fleet back to Persia and removes half his army February 2nd Creation of the worldChaos which is a voidFrom the void came Gaia earth and eros which is desire Gaia spontaneously creates Ouranos which is the sky and he is male He becomes the first king of heaven The rest of the creations come into being through sexual reproduction Greek religion is polytheistic Olympian gods are associated with mount Olympus and the Greeks believed the major gods in their religion lived there These gods are immortal The Cthonic gods are associated with the earth hades persephone these were gods beneath the earth or the underworld Cthonic gods have cyclical death and rebirth rather than linear lives The most important of the gos had multiple functions on earth The 12 olympians were all gods of something Some were patrons of medicine or wild animals or travelers When you wanted something done you had to pray to the god that was relevent to the subject of your prayer 1 Gods have Epithets A god may have many different roles Athenapolias patronPromachosgoddess who fights out in frontParthenos virginErgane patron of the crafts 2 Gods are anthropomorphichumanshaped Physically but physically they are perfect socially and psychologically like humans Socially the gods are very much like humans They are not morally above humans they are very alike humans someone does something wrong they make it right ex hermes steals cattle from Apollo He gives Apollo the Lyre in return Psychologically the gods have all the same qualities as men jealousy etc How do the gods differ from humansThey are more powerfulphysically and they have supernatural powers They are also immortal humanism One one hand the gods are just like humans Over time the Greeks begin to think the gods should reflect the ideals of humanitythey should be held to higher standards Pessimism Humans are play toys of the gods Many Greeks viewed each generation before them as better and thought humanity was getting worse and worse GodsZeus bright sky The most important god He had both cthonic and olympian traits although he rules on mt olympus He is the symbol of male fertility The male fertility
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