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Classical Civilization
CLCV 1002
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Greek Civilization CLCV 1002B January 10th 2011Written sources Literature Inscriptions Papyrus Archaeological sources Buildings artifacts imagesGreece is newer than Egypt and had a deep respect for the antiquity of EgyptThey adopted the alphabet from the phoneciansThe Greeks colonized all around the mediterranean and all around the black sea They had much of the coast of modern day Turkey as wellWhen civilization first appeared in Greece it was not on the mainlands They began as seafaring people Major cities Macedon Alexander the great came from here Thessaly a plane Peloponnese Crete largest island in Greece IoniaGreece is dominated by mountain and sea The mountains are substantial geographical barriers and caused problems in movement of people and goods This caused the Greeks to move towards the sea became main sailors along with phoneciansGreece is often affected by sandstorms blowing over from the Sahara desert This creates the mediterranean climate which is hot and dry The terrain is mountainousrough and bare Human habitation tends to settle in the hills beside the fertile plainsIt does not have the agricultural fertility of other ancient nations which affects its ability to be powerful Fragmentation of Culture Politically small scale states develop independent of one another Athens Corinth These states have their own laws calendars politics etc Athens was one of the biggest populations with up to a quarter of a million people and 2000km2 Sparta reached up to one million and had the biggest territory about 8000km2 Most states however had about 5000 to 10000 total population and maybe 100km2 of territory Language They all spoke Greek but time and geographic culture caused language to change In Greece different dialects formed There are three major dialiects Doric Ionic Aeolic Doric started in southern Greece in Crete and then traveled The Ionic greek is named after Ionia Homer wrote in this dialect Athens spoke a slightly unusual form of Ionic Greek Ionic Greek expanded North and spread their dialect into the north Aegean and Black Sea The third dialiect is Aeolic and developed in Thessaly people in Troy and Lesbos spoke this dialect This had a political influence because it caused Greeks to share certain attributes with other Greeksit was therefore easy to create an alliance with Greeks with the same dialect as you speak the same way worship at the same places etc Chronology of Greece The earliest period of human history areMesolithic 10000 to 6500 BC and Paleolithic periods which is everything down to 6500 BC Stone tools were used at this timeNeolithic 65003000 BC Revolution of agriculture It completely changed how humans lived They domesticated animals and plant crops so they could control where their food source came from bringing about the development of permanent settlements This is when land ownership began to be important and so did material goods also bringing about higher and lower classes Dimini ThessalyCity built on a hill with stone wallsmost likely used for terracing leveling up the ground This was a stratified communityBronze age 30001150 BC Advanced civilizations emerged characterized by an urban center centralized political control the man and articulation of economy usually revolving around agriculture craft specialization and trade Three different ones develop 1 Cycladic Aegean islands 2 Minoans Crete 3 Helladic mainland GreeceMycenaeans Cycladic Civilization Developed in a circle in the Aegean islands 30 of the islands become inhabited The language they spoke is unknown Their land is not fertile besides a bit of land close to volcanoes As a result they are a seafaring people with gold and silver as resources as well as high quality stone volcanic naxos pumice and marbleseefaring people based on trade famous for cycladic figurines made of marble cut with obsydian and sanded with pumice which influenced 20th century artThey were the earliest civilization in the Greek world Minoans Based all around Crete They were not seafaring they had fertile land They were influenced by the Cycladic people they moved into trading eventually and became successful enough to expand The Franchthi CaveRelevent from the Paleolithic to the Bronze age spanning 18000 years of habitation In the paleolithic periods people were nomadic hunter gatherers During the mesolithic people learned to farm foods The franchthi cave was seasonally habited because it was right on the shore and people went fishing These people had rituals and some primitive form of religion They buried their dead in the same place they livedthey practiced intramural burial where they buried close ones in the walls of their house indicating importancewanting to keep loved ones close all treated in ritualistic waysheads to the west where they believed hades was situated given certain goods etc
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