*Romans believed their city was founded in 753 BC, archaeological excavation says 8 century BC.
**Romans like to believe they are descended from gods, a national epic written by virgil says they are fromAeneas the
***Latins learned the greeak alphabet from the Greeks of their north port in Cumae.
****The spark in ignited the metamorphosis of Rome from an Italian to a Mediterranean power was a small incident in
289BC which was the seizure of Messana but a band of Campanian mercenaries. Which started the Punic Wars.
*****In the same year that Carthage was destroyed, the Romans, as an example to unruly Greeks, destroyed the Achaean
city Corinth as a prelude to the annexation of Greece into the growing empire.
*Aprovince was defined as a territory outside Italy with its own borders, belonging to the Roman people, governed by a
Roman officer of state, and subject to Roman taxation.
**In an agreement between Rome and her client nations, if there was no obvious heir to the kingdom, it would on the
monarch’s death be left to the extended family of the monarch.
***According to Cicero, it was deemed best for Roman women to be under the control of guardians. The only exceptions
up to the time ofAugustus were vestal virgins.
*After Hannibal defeated Rome’s armies at Cannae, oppian law was introduced that said no woman could possess more
than half an ounce of gold or wear a dress dyed in a variety of colours, 20 yrs later women rose up in protest!
**the romans could have devised many labour-saving devices, particulary for use on the farm, were it not that an
abundance of slavelabour was an economic fact of life which impeded technology
***The ration of slave to free did not exceed 1 to 3.
*Aslave could purchase his freedom or achieve it by a process more common oever time, which was at the discretion of
the owner and is known as manumission.
**Roman architects were less concerned with external appearances than with the creation of interior space
***The biggest cluster of Roman building remains outside Italy is in Provence, where the towns or Arles, Orange and
Nimes boast two amphitheatres, a triumphal arch and a temple.
-Virgil’s epic poem about the fall of Troy, the travels of Aenas and the settlement of Italy.
-He wrote it in response to encouragement fromAugustus.
-Filled 470 year gap with the rule of Aeneas and his descendants inAlba Longa.
-Aeneas needed help from the Latins and King Tarchon of the Etruscans to defeat the resistance of King Turns of
-This epic begins with the Trojan War, which constitutes the dramatic time frame of the poem, but its symbolic
time frame is theAugustan age
-Father wasAnchises, Mother was Venus goddess of love
-Enemy of Turnus
-Fought against the Greeks in the Trojan War.
-Wandered to Italy with hardship and founded the dynasty from which Romulus
-Gets offered wife from Latinus King of Latium.
-War Starts because of Turnus and gets support from Tarchon, Kin fog the Etruscans and
-King of the Rutulians.
-Fancies wife to be of Aeneas and starts war
-Loses war Ascanius:
-fought in the Italian wars with father Aeneas
-founded city of Alba Longa and became its King.
-grandson of Numitor, son of Rhea Silva and God of Mars
-killed by his twin brother Romulus
-grandson of Numitor. Son of Rhea Silva and God of Mars.
-killed his twin brother Remus
-Decided to establish city in Palatine by watching the flight of birds
-His city was short of women, thus kidnapped 600 sabines women.
- was forced to become a vestal virgin byAmulius
-god of Mars had his way with her while she slept and had 2 sons(Romulus and remus)
-Father was Numitor
-Sank in the river of Tiber
- Local King
-2 sons murdered by brotherAmulius
-1 daughter Rhea Silvia who was drowned byAmulius
-Jealous of his brother the local King Numitor.
-killed his nephews and niece.
-Greeks were colonizing southern Italy which became known as Magna Graecia-Great Greece
-Ramnes, Luceres, Tities were believed to represent the three ethnic strands in the population
Period of the kings 520 BC
-Peaceful reign, responsible for introducing many religious festivals, building the temples of Vesta and
Adding January and February to the calendar.
-mysterious relationship with the nymph Eseria
-Constant warfare-including struggle againstAlba Longa
-Etruscans, murdered after a long reign by sons of Ancus
- wife Tanaquil made sure successor was Servius Tullius
-said to have planned the great temple of Jupiter about 60 meters long and 50 wide
-Supposedly raised as a slave in Tarquinius’household
-Famed for enlarging the city and its walls
-Reformed the army, to which he also gave the status of a political assembly “the comitia centuriata”
-credited with first stamping the design of an ox or a sheep on copper
-Driven out.Alledgedly by Brutus, who was claimed to be an ancestor by Marcus Brutus, one of the assassins
of Julius Cesar.
-Grandson of Taruinius Priscus
-Supervised its building(Jupiter Temple) calling up labour from Eturia as well as Latium to get the job done
- Planned/built the Cloaca Mazima (great Sewer) of republican and imperial Rome
Porsena: -Fellow etruscans of Superbus, held Rome for several years after being driven out by Brutus.
-Son of Superbus
-known for rape of Lucretia
-was raped by Sextus after black mailing her.
-told her father and husband(Collatinus) and Brutus. Then killed herself.
Lucius Julius Brutus:
-Heard of the Lucretia Rape
-Shouted the overthrow of Tarquinius family and forced them to flee into exile.
-Founder of the Roman Republic
-Declared power to be int eh hands of the senate
-Him and Collatinus were the first consul in Rome
*Aconsul served in the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic.
-Group of elite families in ancient Rome
-Advisort body of patricians
-kings were appointed by a group of elders called Senate, about 300 members up to the reforms of Sulla
-Aband of attendants that accompanied the king, each carrying a bundle of rods with an axe in the middle,
Signifying the punishments that could be meted out to criminals.
-Middle class and lower class people
-could only participate in two other advisory assemblies:
The curiate and centuriate
-Assembly of representatives of wards.
-ten each from the three original tribes of Rome and the original people’s council at the time of the kings
-Assembly of represetatives of military unit
*Community divided into 3 tribes, each responsible for providing one thousand infantry and one
Hundred cavalry in time of war. Each tribe was further divided into ten curiae, whose representatives
Were responsible for civil affairs and met together to discuss matters of national importance.
-members of curiae made up the comitia curiata
-Smallest unit of the roman army
-The original plebeian parliament
Comitia Tributa: The tribal assembly
-Organized in tribes in the same way as the concilium plebis, but open to all citizens.
-it elected minor officials and was a means of approving legislation.
-4(urban tribes) citizens inside the city of Rome
-31(rural tribes) citizens ouside of Rome
SPQR (Senatus Pulusque Romanus):
-Government fo ancient Roman Republic.
-Used as an official signature of the government.
-Embodies the spirit of the Roman Republic.
-Adecree made by the people
**Romans invented concrete
**Romans and Greek used money in the time of Numa Pompulus
Dictator: -In time of crisis, exercise complete control for not more than six months.
-Extraordinary magistrate with absolute authority to perform tasks beyond the ordinary magistrate
-Chief Registrar, financial and tax officiary inspector of public works, and arbites of public morality.
-Post restricted to those who climbed the ladder of honours.
-“Cursus Honorum” from quaestor to consul.
-Chief law officer and judge, and understudy of the consuls, particularly in the administration of the provinces.
-Superviser of public works, temples, markets and games.
-Assistant to the consuls, particularly as controller of the military or civic treasury and keeper of records.
-Highest elected office.
-Serving as heads of government for the Republic.
-New consuls elected every year.
-2 consuls and they ruled together.
-Ladder of Honour
-Sequential order of public offices helf by aspiring politicians.
-Compromised a mix of military and political administration post.
-Quaestor, praetor, consul.
-Important step in the political career of plebians.
-Holder could convene the popular assemblies and present the plebeians’grievances to the consuls or the senate.
-Chief religious officer
The twelve tables:
-Acommittee of ten was struck to refine, standardize and record a statuatory code of law for all Romans.
**Whole fo Italy was in Roman hands by about 170BC
**Claudine Forks in 321 BC, where the Romans were humiliated by the Gauls was the worst disaster ever.
-Coastal city inApulia.
-Important commercial Port
Pyrrhus of Epirus:
-King of Epirus came to Italian peninsula to protect the interests of the Greeks city states in the south.
-Was seen off by the romans
-He is also the successor of Alexander the Great
-Defeated the romans at Ausculum by the ingenious deployment of his elephants, he is reported as remarking that
One more victory like that against the Romans and he would be finished.
-Avictory in which the winners losses are as great as those as the loser.
-losing 50 battles and winning the last battle and losing most of your men is like losing in the end.
The punic wars (264-146 BC)
-Series of 3 wars fought between Rome and Carthage
-Main cause was conflict of interests between the existing Carthaginian Empire and the Roman Republic
-Romans were interested in expansion via Sicily (which some part lay under Carthaginian control
-At the 1 punic war, Carthage was dominant power with extensive maritime empire, while Rome was
Rapidly ascending power in Italy, but lacked the Naval
-At the end of the 3 war, Rome had conquered Carthage and razed the city, becoming the most powerful
st State of the Mediterranean(western)
1 Punic War (264-241BC):
-Largely fought at sea, Romans built series of fleets to match Carthaginian numbers.
1. Carthago agreed to withdraw all claims to Sicily and hostilities ceased.
2. During the ceasing, the Romans took advantage toAnnex Corsica and Sardina
3. Cartago retaliated by increasing its empire with southern spain 4. Spanish campaign was led by Hamilcar, his son-in-law Hasdrubal and his son Hannibal
5. So successful that Romans were forced into a diplomatic manoeuvre.
6. River Ebro: Boudary betweent eh interests of the two powers, but Saguntum town under Roman
7. Hasdrubal murdered by his slave. Hannibal assumes command and starts the 2 Punic war.
2 Punic War (218-202BC):
1. Hannibal attacks and captures Saguntum
2. Romans thought this war would also be fought on sea
3. Hannibal decided not to fight by seas, and confounded everybody by marching all his army out of Spain
and across the River Rhône.
4. Hannibal then invaded Italy by the North and took control over northern Italy
5. Rome too tough! So went south and annihilated Cannae
6. 14 years Hannibal rampaged in Italy before being lured back to Carthago and get defeater in Zama by
7. Hannibal survived the battle only to end his life in exile.
BETWEEN 2 ND & 3RD PUNIC WAR
1. Rome confiscated Spain
2. Marcus porcius Cato saw that Carthage might rise again so said: CARTHAGE MUST BE
3 Punic War (149-146BC):
1. Carthage was razed to the ground.
2. 50000 survivors sold as slaves.
-Commanded the Carthaginian forces into Sicily 247-241BC
Sons: Hannibal and Hasdrubal
-Famous for marching intro Italy with his infantry
-Occupied much of Italy for 15 years.
-Started the 2 Punic War.
-Commander in chief of the Carthaginian armies.
Gaius Lutatius Catulus:
-Roman statesman and naval commander in 1 Punic War.
-Elected as a consul, a novus homo (new man)
-Battle between Hannibal and Roman Republic
-Defeat of the Romans
-Battle between Hannibal and Roman Republic
-Defeat of the Romans
-Defeat of the romans by Hannibal
-most successful ambushes in military history.
Quintus Fabius Maximus:
-Roman politician and general
-known for delaying deploying troops during 2 punic war.
Publius Cornelius Scipio:
-General in 2 Punic war nd
-Defeated Hannibal at the final battle of the 2 punic war in Zama.
- Battle marked the final and decisive end of 2 Punic war.
Masinissa of Numidia:
-King of African city
-Ally of Rome and helped in battle of Zama Cato the Elder:
-He helped the officer in Rome of: Military Tribune, quaestor, aedile, Praetor, consul and censor
-Famous for his lines:
Carthage must be destroyed
Carthago delenda est!
-Tiberius and Gaius Gracchi
-Roman nobily served as tribunes.
-Attempted to form land reform legislation that would redistribute the major patrician, land holdings among
-For this membership in the populares party they have been considered the founding fathers of both socialism and
-Tiberius attempted to organize a fairer distribution of land, his brother Gaius tried to integrate the peoples of
Italy into the roman state.
-Both, despite being the elected representatives of the people (tribunes) were murdered by senators, fearful that
Their ancient privileges were being eroded.
-Thus began a century of political violence, previously unknown to Rome.
-Pushed for a programme of land reform.
-limited the amount of land that could be owned by a single individual.
-Senators scared that their own lands would be confiscated.
-Senators obstructed re-election, amrched into the forum where they had the 300 followers and Tiberius killed
-10 years later, took same office as Tiberius.
-Considered more dangerous by patricians.
-Had a wide range of proposals,
-worst one was offering Roman citizenship to Latins.
-3000 followers die with him when he’s not elected for a third year.
-Roman general and statesman.
-Elected consul for 7 years.
-Dramatic reforms of the army, authorizing recruitment of landless citizens.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla:
-Held office of consul and dictator.
-His proscriptions initiate a reign of terror.
-His reforms restore power to the senatorial class.
-After 3 years of a reversion to what constituted an absolute monarchy, he retired and wrote his memoirs
-wish to limit the power of the popular assembles and the tribune of the plebs and to extend the power of the plebs
-worried about individual generals who would shift power from the senate and aristocracy
-aristrocratic leaders who relied on the people’s assemblies and tribunate to acquire political power
-they were of noble rank
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great):
-military and political leader.
-joined his rival Marcus Licinius Crassus and his ally Julius Ceasar in the unofficial military alliance known as
The first triumvirate.
-Validated by the marriage of Julia and Pompey.
-When Julia and Crassus dies, he sides with the optimates.
-Caesar and Peompey contended for the leadership of the Roman state leading to civil war.
-Got defeated by ceasar in the Battle of Pharsalus.
Marcus Licinius Crassus:
-Commanded left wing of Sulla’s army at the battle fo the Colline Gates.
-Suppressed the slave revolt led by Spartacus
-Provided political and financial support to Julius Caesar
-Entered political Alliance: The First Triumvirate with Pompey and Caesar -Defeated and killed in Syria
-leader fo the slaves in the 3 servile wars (major uprising against Roman Republic)
-Social rank, a member of family achieved consulship
-Patrician families were nobles, plebeians whose ancestor were nobles were also considered nobiles.
-The transition to nobilitas required the rise of an exceptional individual who was considered a “new man”
Mithridates of Pontus:
-Most formidable and succesdul enemies of Rome who engages 3 of the prominent generals from the late
Roman republic: Sulla, Lucullus and Pompey
Gaius Julius Caesar:
-The first Triumvirate
-Attempts to amass power for themselves through populist tactics
-were opposed within the roman senate.
-His conquest of Gaul, extended territory to the North Sea, conducted 1 Roman invasion of Britain.
-Granted him unmatched military power Pompey less power.
-Pompey vs. Caesar
-Ordered by senate to stand trial in Rome, Caesar with his legion, crossing Rubicon, sparked a civil war
From which he emerged as the unrivalled leader of the Roman world.
-Marcus Julius Bratus assassinated Julius Caesar
-“Crossing of the Rubicon” means to pass a point of no return
-Julius Caesar crossing the river 49BC considered act of war.
The 1 Triumvirate:
-political alliance of Caesar, Crassus, Pompey.
-No official status
-daughter of Caesar
-4 wife of Pompey
Aka iacta est! The die has been cast
-said to Caesar when he crossed the Rubicon river.
-Entered Italy at the head of his army and began long civil war against Pompey and Optimates
Battles of Pharsalus:
-decisive battle of Caesar civil war.
-Caesar/Antony(winner) vs. Pompey/Magnus
Phanacles of Pontus:
-King of Pontus
-battle fought against Julius Caesar and Pharnacles
Ides of March:
- Best known for Caesar assassination date.
-PoliticalAlliance withAugustus, Marc Antony, Lepidus.
-Official institution with overpower.
-title conferred upon the emperor by the senate.
-previously associated with roman religion and meant something like our “holy”
-3 wife ofAugustus.
-changed name to LiviaAugusta
-mother of emperor Tiberius
-Deified by Claudius who gave her the title ofAugusta
Absolute Tribunician Power: Tribuneship
-Tribune had the power to convene plebeian council and act as his president, which gave them right to propose
Legislation before it.
-any assault on their person was prohibited. -the power to veto actions by magistrate
-also able to summon senate and aly proposals before it.
-the tribunes power only worked while he was in Rome
-Veto did not affect regional governors
-because it was impossible for a patrician to be a tribune of the plebeians,Augustus was offered all powers
of the tribunate without holding the office. Absolute Tribunician Power
-formed 1 of 2 main constitutional bases ofAugustus authority.
-gave him authority to convene senate, authority to veto, and could exercise capital punishment.
-The 1 member by precedence of the Roman Senate
-Officially out of cursus honorum and no power, it brought enormous prestige to the senator holding it.
Pax Romana(Roman Peace):
-Long period of peace in Roman Empire in the 1 and 2 centuries AD
-Lasted aprox 207 years. 27BC-180AD
-Battle between Germanic tribes vs Roman Legions.
1. Arminus(german) ambushed and destroyed three roman legions with their auxiliaries led by Publius