Midterm 2 Review
How Do We Learn?
1) Non Associative Learning: Habituation and sensitization (used to phone vibing,
wont feel it after a while).
2) Associative Learning: Classical conditioning and operant conditioning (reward
3) Play (or pretend play)
4) Observational Learning (kids learn about interactions and mimic them).
6) Rote learning/memorization
Animal Learning and is it Similar to Human Learning?
Classical conditioning learned by association (rat learns to avoid sweet liquid after
getting an injection that makes him ill).
Operant Conditioning: punishment/reward for good/bad behavior.
Engage in social and pretend play.
Animals can not memorize.
Better Facilitate Learning
Less stress, proper diet, healthy foods, stay hydrated, good amount of rest, breaks.
What is Memetics?
The meme, comparable to a gene, was conceived as a “unit of culture” )an idea, belief,
pattern of behavior, etc) which is “hosted” in the minds of people and which can
reproduce itself, therby jumping from mind to mind. Thus this would be regarded as
when one individual influences another to adopt a belief, an ideareplicator produces
itself in a new host.
WAITING ON MORE OF AN ANSWER FROM DISCUSSION BOARD ON CU
Self replicating, self propagating unit which encodes information on the creation of
interactors. (ie: DNA, memes).
>Interactors: the whole entity which the replicators encode and upon whom
evolutionary forces apply. (ie: physical structures, behaviors, cultural beliefs,
How are Ideas like Genes?
based off same base as memes.
>How we choose leaders (meritocracy, democracy, etc).
>How we acquire and allocate social resources (Communism, capitalism,
Was the Mind’s Evolution Planned? Accidental.
We needed tools, language, working memory, and emotion.
Evolved in a way that things are added and nothing is taken away. Never restarted.
Why Did the Mind Evolve?
Result of being in complex social structures (large groups= more complex).
More intelligent people survive, dumb people die (need smarts to survive).
Nutrition: as better food became available, brains developed better.
Problem Solving: had to deal with climate change (Flash floods etc). This brought the
rise of tool making, relocating, how to stay safe quickly.
Evolution of Mind
Tool use, development of empathy, move towards cooperation, language, working
A mind may be composed of several innate parts that have developed evolutionarily to
hold functional purposes. IE: organs, human mind.
Are We Born Good or Bad?
Aren’t born either but depending on cultural/social pressures, we can be either.
What is Nativism Morality?
We are not born moral but are born with social emotions like guilt, shame, empathy and
sympathy. These emotions promote morality. However, morality itself is not innate in us.
What is the Psychopath and Why is He Bad?
Disorder influenced by both genetic and environmental factors.
Diagnosed using the PCLR checklist that covers Factor 1 (Personality Issues: ie lack of
empathy and guilt) and Factor 2 (Behavioral Issues ie: crime, social deviant lifestyle) and
1/5 people in prison are psychopaths and 14% of everyday people are.
Empathy is needed for morality and since psychopaths don’t have empathy, can they
In animals, accordi