Communication Study Notes
Representation: the use of language and images to create a meaning for the world
Semiotics: the study of signs. SIGNIFIER + SIGNIFIED.
Signifier: what is shown or heard. Objects or words.
Signified: the meaning of what is shown or heard. What comes to mind from these
objects or words.
Polysemy: Poly=many, Semy= sign
Ideology: the broad but indispensable shared set of values and beliefs through which
individuals live out their complex relations in the range of social networking. NOT
based on fact.
Context: the relevant constraints of the communication situation that influences
language use, variation, and discourse summary.
Conventions: a set of agreed upon standards or norms.
Structuralism: emphasizes that elements of culture must be understood in terms of
their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.
Representation creates meaning about the world around us through the text itself,
rules and conventions, and context.
Active Audiences interpretation and social context of interpretation, and collective
Passive Audiences uploading homemade videos, making Facebook statuses, tweeting,
sending a picture to a news station, or texting a friend.
Agenda Setting: a theory that suggests that the more coverage a news story has, the
more important it will seem to the public.
Hypodermic Needle: An intended message will be received by the audience.
Uses and Gratification Theory: an approach to understand why people actively seek out
specific media outlets and content gratification purposes.
Limited Effects Model: media has limited effect on voters
Mean World Syndrome: violent related media makes audiences believe that the world is
more dangerous that it truly is.
Dominant Reading: the reader fully shares the text codes and accepts and reproduces
the preferred reading.
Negotiated Reading: the reader partly shared the text codes.
Oppositional Reading: understands the text code, but does not share it and rejects the
Broadcasting: a signal that is sent to a broad audience.
Narrowcasting: a signal that is sent to a narrow audience. Cultivation Theory: the long term effects that television has.
Branded Entertainment: entertainment that is funded by a brand.
Planned Obsolescence: creating a product that has a limited life span.
Digital Native: someone who was born during or after the digital era.
Consumer societies is a capitalist society
What is media? Medium of communication.
Charles Peirce + Ferdinand de Saussure: Semiotics. What is a sign? Ferdinand=linguist.
Charles=Philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist.
Denotation: what we see.
Connotation: what it means.
Barthes: Created denotation and connotation
Herbert Blumer: Believed that