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COMM 1101 Exam Prep: Final (2)

7 Pages

Communication Studies
Course Code
COMM 1101
Chris Russill

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KEY TERMS: FINAL LECTURE 2 Representation: the use of language and images to create meaning about the world around us Semiotics: the study of signs Sign: SIGN = SIGNIFIER + SIGNIFIED; understand world through signs Signifier: what is said, shown, or heard Signified: meaning of what is said, shown, or heard Denotation: the literal or explicit meaning of a sign Connotation: all the historical, cultural, social meanings that are added to the literal meaning by the interpreter Ideology: the broad but indispensable shared sets of values and beliefs through which individuals live out their complex relations in a range of social networks; media texts produced with ideologies Structuralism: discover patterns/structures that shape texts and genres, tries to uncover how a media text is structured Image Conventions: technical (shutter speed), aesthetic (colour), social (framing) aspects of taking a photograph with a camera LECTURE 3 Active Audience: an audience that makes an interpretation of a media text, has a social context for that interpretation, and participates in collective action Hypodermic Needle Model: media shoots its effects into unsuspecting victims (propaganda) Limited Effects Model: media affects some people, but not others; people tend to expose themselves to media they’re familiar with and contain messages that reflect attitudes they already have Uses and Gratification Model: trying to resolve a problem of the passive audience; use is the key; studies how and why people use media to gratify certain needs, not how people were affected or used by media Agenda Setting: when people focus attention on specific issues, they find out what will be topics of discussion in society; media makes agenda for what gets discussed and what doesn’t get discussed Cultivation Effect: the more time you spend with media, absorbing the views, the more likely your views of social reality will be influenced by this view – “mean-world syndrome” Encoding: media messages put in my producers; encoded by context of production and producer; codes, conventions, and production; and the content itself Decoding: message decoded by the context of reception and receiver; and the selection of framework and understanding Dominant Reading: don’t question the intended meaning, but accept it Negotiated Reading: in between; agree with only some elements of intended meanings Oppositional Reading: most extreme; viewer rejects intended meaning entirely and/or makes an entirely new interpretation LECTURE 4 Product Placement: companies paying for their products/brands to be displayed in various media texts Google’s AdWords: auction style of selling space for ads online; highest bidder gets the highest point on the margin in your Google search Contextual Advertising: a form of targeted advertising for advertisements appearing on websites or other media, such as content displayed in mobile browsers Industrial Revolution: immigration, multi-ethnic populations, populations searching for new ways of living and understanding society; advertising promoted products to help with ailments, like ones that help you adjust to new environments. Mass Retailing: major transportation and distribution systems, ship products, packaging changed dramatically (food packaging to preserve it while travelling), more competitors (idea of the brand), rise of the department store Professionalization of Advertising: associations of advertisers (to raise reputation, they need standards and regulation of what they can say in ads), copyrighting, design, illustration, media buys, etc.; printing technology improved (aesthetic/technological ability increased) Personalization: personalization of ads, target you directly based on aspects of your lifestyle, religion, age, gender, etc. LECTURE 5 Anti-Environment: being so submersed in your environment you don’t realize what’s going on around you until you take a critical look; fish don’t realize they’re submersed in water because they’re used to it Consumer Society: capitalism, choice, time (speed/emphemerality), creating demand, discretionary income/leisure time, mobility Planned Obsolescence: products designed to fail, go out of style, break, or outmoded by a newer, better version (fashion, computers, etc.) Narrowcasting: the dissemination of information (usually by radio or television) to a narrow audience, not to the general public. Narrowcasting involves aiming media messages at specific segments of the public defined by values, preferences, or demographic attributes (niche media/target marketing) Commodities: any marketable product that is produced to satisfy wants or needs; we use them to express ourselves – construct identity through consumption Audience Fragmentation: division of audiences into small groups due to the wide spectrum of media outlets. This is a situation that becomes increasingly baffling to advertisers as the specialization of publications and broadcast opportunities becomes even more diverse LECTURE 6 Underrepresentation: what’s missing from the news coverage; if a specific audience creates news, it will be catered to a specific audience; lack of diversity leads to bias in news and alienation of audience Misrepresentation: inadequate or predictable coverage; not a result of government change, but news organizations realizing they were alienating and losing a portion of their audience Search Engine Optimization: journalists are learning to write their stories so that they appear on top of the search results; Huffington Post does this well Gatekeepers: an individual or institution that selects what information will be reported, and what will be disregarded, i.e. journalists Journalism: the work that professional journalists do for newspapers, television, or other mass media; originated in a historical period defined by high barriers of access to the means of producing news and evolved to meet needs of small portion of the population Journalistic Principles: obligation to the truth, loyalty is to citizens (answer to advertisers and shareholders, but they must maintain public interest and citizens; mandatory to provide news without fear/favour), and its essence is a discipline of verification (understands itself as a professional discipline for verifying information) News: new information about an event or issue communicated in an organized public way; not defined by value judgment, but the role it plays in your life Link Economy: the value added to new stories or other content by using the web’s ability to link to external information or to share content Fortress Journal
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