Cesare Lambroso: italian nigger, criminals represent physical traits; degeneracy.
1. Born criminals (physical traits)
2. Insane criminals (idiots, imbeciles, paranoiacs)
3. Occasional Criminals (crime in response to opportunities)
4. criminals of passion (crime motivated by anger, love, or honour)
Enrico Ferri: italian nigger, crime explained through multitude of factors.
1. physical factors (race, geography);
2. individual factors (age, sex, psychological variables);
3. social factors (population, religion, culture)
Raffaele Garofalo: the last of the italian niggers; society is a body of nature; crimes are against the law
criminals lack sentiments of probity and pity
1 category: murderers, lack both pity and probity; will steal/kill when the opportunity arises
2 category: violent criminals, lack pity; influenced by environmental factors such as alcohol
3 category: thieves, suffer from lack of probity
4 category: sexual criminals, some classified as violent criminal