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Carleton University
Criminology and Criminal Justice
CRCJ 1000

CRIMINOLOGY FINAL EXAM REVIEWPsychology of the Criminal Justice System Oct 25EyewitnessesMistaken IdentificationEyewitnesses provide important information to policeSometimes the only evidence available can build an entire case on 1 persons statementMistaken identities are huge concern 150 people exonerated after DNA testing 70 incorrectly identified by an eyewitnessTentative ID causes investigation to focusnarrow on 1 person rather than other suspectsconfirmation biasConfirmation biasoSeeking out interpreting and creating information that corresponds to your existing beliefoAka experimenter bias psychologyR v SophonowoSophonow matched description of suspect around the scene of a crimeoPut in lineup foot taller than everyone else police gave leading cueseyewitness conceded that it was himo witnesses could not ID him in a photo array but still testified against himoWent to prison but was later exoneratedInformation ProcessingPerceptionoPerceive something to begin with then save it to memoryoTo process info about a crime you must first perceive the event then hold it in memory and retrieve it later oPerception can overestimate the height of suspects and the duration of real events especially stressful onesoWeapon focusIf there is a weapon present that is what will be focused on not the perpetrator or anything elseMost likely to occur when the weapon is surprising or unexpected detrimental to perceptionMemory oEncodingWhat at the evenperceiving things can be incomplete due to focus on even one single other objectDo not have the ability to put it into memory due to lack of proper exposureFeeling when encoding something stressfear does not make memory any betterSome stress is better than no stress for remembering howeverMemory research done with intentional memoryartificialIncidental memory not thinking about encoding memory properly worse than incidental obviouslyoStorageNot thinking about it but it has happened back of your mindHow well you hold onto that informationRetention intervalAmount of time that passes between the even and when youre asked to describe what happenedMemory loss is pretty rapid memory in general is very malleableAfter 2 months face seen in just a few secondsminutes is likely gonePostevent informationLearnedgathered information after the event that affectsmisleads your memoryMisinformation effect integrate info to your memorycant differentiate it lateroRetrievalPulling up memory to the consciousreporting what happened during an eventUnconscious transferenceGetting confused about how you know somethingVariables that Affect Eyewitness MemoryEstimator VariablesoFactors that are beyond the control of the criminal justice system Can only be estimated regarding the influence on the eyewitness reliability Circumstances of the event disguise short exposure lighting etcCrossrace effect other race effectEyewitnesses are usually better at recognizing members of their own race due to more exposurefamiliarity with features etc35 of misidentifications were done by white people identifying someone of another raceAge and gender of eyewitnessesWomen are better at identifying subjects AS WELL AS misidentifyingOlder eyewitnesses and children more likely to make wrong identifications unless in a lineup where they are the same as everyone elseSystem variablesoFactors that are under the control of the criminal justice systemInstructions to eyewitnesses lineup procedures feedback influence etc Reforming Identification ProceduresInterviewing eyewitnessesoCognitive interviewBased on concepts of memory build rapport with the witness more likely to give more detail ask for a narrative account then probe for deeper infoContext reinstatement putting the witness back in the context in which they experienced the crime sounds emotions mental recreation to help memoryUnconventional ways of asking for story asking to tell story backwards different perspectives etcLineup instructions
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