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ERTH 2415 Final: EarthFinalExam 2017

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Earth Sciences
ERTH 2415
Claire Samson

Lecture 10: Composition of the crust Inner core: As a result of Planetary differentiation: 8 elements form 98 of crust (silicone oxygen = 75) Inner core:Solid iron (VERY DENSE) Outer core: Liquid iron (VERY DENSE) Mantle: Iron and magnesium (DENSE) Crust: Silicon and oxygen (LESS DENSE) SiO tetrahedron molecule Four oxygen ions surrounding a much smaller silicon ion Tetrahedrons combine to form rings, chains, sheets and 3D structures Magma : (ointment ancient Greek): partially molten rock below surface Three components: Liquid: molten rock Solids: minerals crystallized from the melt Volatiles: gases dissolved in the melt Lava: (from to wash in Latin, becoming torrent in Italian): magma that reaches the surface Crystallization: process of mineral formation by solidliquid separation in a cooling magma Igneous rocks: form by cooling and solidification from hot molten rock material Intrusive Igneous rocks: Cooling at depth Slow cooling and Large crystals Most magmas solidify at depth and are later exposed by erosion Extrusive Igneous rocks: Cooling at the surface (synonym: volcanic) Fast cooling and Small crystals Contact with the atmosphere or water
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