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Midterm 1-Review Notes.docx

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Earth Sciences
ERTH 2415
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NaturalDisastersMidtermReviewLESSON 1INTRODUCTIONWhat is a natural disaster1Natural Disaster natural event which large amounts of energy is released in a short time resulting in a catastrophic impacts on life or environment1usually has high casualties destruction of infrastructure disruption of society economic loss media coverage govt involvement2big focus on if it disrupts societyNatural Hazards1Natural Hazards source of potential hazard that exists in the environment that have the potential to cause harm eg rock slides2Vulnerability likelihood that a community will suffer injuries deaths or property damage from a hazardous event3Resilience reduction in likelihood for community suffering by taking various steps eg burying power linesMetrics1Frequency number of occurrences of similar events per unit of time eg Caribbean storms affect Atlantic Canada 4x per year2Return Period length of time between similar events eg severe hurricanes occur in the US about every 6 years3Magnitude amount of energy fuelling a natural disaster event eg force of hurricane winds or of an earthquakeOrigin of the Solar System1Formation of Solar Nebulla1gravity force of attraction between masses m m separated by a distance of r2turbulent cloud filled with dust particles that attract each other and eventually becomes a disk by moving in the same directiongravity flattens it2Planetary Accretion1accretion into planetestimals2planets1collisions between a small number of large bodies in final stageimpact body2controlling T as you move from the sun1closer merc venus mars earthrocky2further giants jup saturn uranus nepicy3other very far comets stable waterice3Differentiation of Earth1caused by gravity causing denser materials to gradually migrate to the centre of the planet2centre is hot because of radioactive decayGlobal Trends1Manmade disasters decreasing in recent years1emerging health and safety economics2 of great natural disasters increasing with time1geological disasters staying constant earthquakes tsunami2weather realated going up drought flood etc1result of climate change3 of natural disaster fatalities increasing with time1communities are more vulnerable higher populations degradation of ecosystems over reliance on technology4Economic losses risingCanadian Trends1natural disaster s increasing overtimeis climate increase responsible2 of fatalities decreasingimproved engineering3economic loss most due to weatherRisk and MitigationRisk product of hazard x valnerabilityResponse immediate actions taken after a disaster has occurred to put event under controlRecovery middleterm activities to put situation back to normal not always possibledesireable to return excatly as it was beforeMitigation long term actions to reduce riskstructural building retrofitting etcnonstructural land use policies severe weather warningsPreparedness planning for disasters by putting in place resources to cope with them when they occurLESSON 2 GUEST SPEAKER MATTHEW GODSOEWhat makes a disaster1disasters a social phenomenon that results when a hazard intersects with a vulnerable community in a way that overwhelms that communitys ability to cope2Vulnerabilities1Structural1old buildings2critical infrastructure oil gas3urbanization4unsustainable land use planning2Social1health age and gender of population2language3aboriginal community considerationsEmergency Management
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