# ECOR 1010 Study Guide - Ecotourism, 3D Modeling, Endangerment

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1 Feb 2013

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Ecor Review

Engineering graphics has evolved into six major areas:

Technical Illustration,

Descriptive Geometry,

Engineering Computer Graphics,

Nomography,

Graphical Mathematics,

Empirical Equations

Engineers convey information in three main ways:

Written Documents

Oral Presentations

Graphically

…Sometimes a combination is needed.

Technical Illustration:

Also called pictorial drawings, technical illustrations are used to describe products in

catalogues, user, and maintenance manuals.

Three common types:

1. Perspective

2. Oblique

3. Isometric (Axonometric)

Perspective:

One-Point Perspective:

The projection plane is parallel to two principal axes. Receding lines

along one of the principal axis converge to a vanishing point.

Two-Point Perspective

If the projection plane is parallel to one of the principal axes or if the

projection plane intersects exactly two principal axes, a two-point

perspective projection occurs

Three-Point Perspective

If the projection plane is not parallel to any principal axis, a three-point

projection occurs with the visual rays converging to three vanishing points.

Oblique Projection

Front face of object is parallel to the viewer, therefore that face is true size.

Used to give an indication of depth.

Isometric Projection

Parallel lines remain parallel instead of converging to a vanishing point.

Axis are 120 degrees apart.

Special case of Axonometric projection.

Isometric projection uses parallel projectors (orthogonal projection), but it

shows more than one face of the object.

The x-, y- and z-axes have the same metric.

The projected cube is also symmetric. All sides are rhombuses (a rhombus is a

parallelogram with sides that are equal in length).

Orthographic Projection

Snapshot of the top, front, and side view.

Useful when technical information is needed.

They enable parts to be made.

Often an isometric view is included with the standard views.

Orthographic

Graphics

Computer graphics with CAD and 3D Modeling.

Nomographs

A NOMOGRAPH, also called an ALIGNMENT CHART, is a calculating chart

with scales that contain values of three or more mathematical variables.

Graphical Mathematics Graphical Mathematics

Solving algebraic equations using graphical techniques without projection.

Empirical Equations

Modeling relations between empirical data as algebraic equations.

Example: algebraic equation to describe how different parts of a robot heat up

from ambient conditions during the course of performing a continuous cyclic

task.

Line Types

Object Lines: indicate all visible edges of an object. They should stand out so the

shape of an object is apparent to the eye.

Hidden Lines: shows object lines that are hidden from view.

Cutting Plane Lines: indicates edge view of an imaginary cutting plane.

Centre Lines: indicates centres of holes and symmetrical features.

Object line

Hidden Line

Cutting plane

Center line