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ENGL 2300 Midterm: British Lit Midterm 2 Study Guide

12 Pages

Course Code
ENGL 2300
Travis Decook

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find more resources at Author Title Lit Type Basic Plot/Themes Specific Notes Geoffrey Chaucer The Canterbury Tales: Story (anthology) - Pilgrim concerned with the worldly - Worldly aspects: in love/sex and travelling; image of the “The Wife of Bath’s of 17 000 lines in aspects, as opposed to spiritual Wife as a wanderer Prologue and Tale” Middle English - A woman who’s job is to be a wife; - Wife as wanderer: goes beyond the conventions of the time has had 5 husbands - Mastery and status: gains control over her husbands by - Gives her thoughts about using her body as a bargaining tool (wears spurs) marriage - Her headgear is large and her stockings are scarlet (an - Looks to authority in the Bible and expensive dye): symbols of status, and her desire to be uses it in context to how she seen behaves - A figure of power and self-assertion - Dominance and control in - Contradictory: what she says and does conflict; no sense of relationship; anti-feminist coherent personality, performing for others perspectives - Rebelling: the more control assigned the more she rebels, - Youth, beauty and status she reaches for power in a problematic way - Defends her marriages and sexuality: uses authority (the Bible and Aristotle) but then decides that experience is what she will rely on - Sex as God-given: The Bible doesn’t explicitly reject multiple marriages (Solomon); God feeds the world with humble barley bread (non-virgins- opposite of white bread [virgins]) - Generosity: don’t think about what others have if you want to be happy (inexhaustible lantern) - When you have more the value goes down (her husband’s love) - Economic analogy: we are attracted to difficulty - “win whatever you can, because everything is up for sale” she let’s them have sex with her so she can get things - Vulnerable with age: she will be less valuable as she ages - The Arthurian tale: the women have authority because they decide on the man’s punishment V. allow the rapist to live; the Old Woman is idealistic as she says that it is what’s inside that matters (unlike the wife’s approach); the power of the decision is given to the OW and then back again she she becomes beautiful - Through conflict the Wife and Jankyn transform: mutual kindness is reached by conflict - The OW turns back to being young: the Wife’s concerns about age - Both the Wife and Pardoner twist religion and participate in it in a way the reader doesn’t expect - Language to manipulate: relationship between message and messenger find more resources at find more resources at The Canterbury Tales: - Chaucer’s concern with clerical - Sexual orientation: ambiguous (the Summoner), but brags “The Pardoner’s abuse about having women in every town Prologue and Tale” - Cheats people out of their money - Carries false indulgences: cross full of stones to seem hefty by associating money with evil with gold; pigs bones, not St. bones - Takes pride in his abilities - Turn church values into a commodity to be sold - Challenges the virtue of his - Manipulates sense of authority; master of language/ profession on many levels preaching - - Story with the tree men looking for - Has no delusions or self-justification gold (and Death) under a tree Good can come of evil: he is the embodiment of greed BUT his preaching can still bring ppl away from sin. Preaching carries its own message regardless of who delivers it - Bodily fragmentation: who people are publicly and privately are often divided find more resources at find more resources at Thomas More Utopia Book of fiction/ - Notion of surveillance - Raphael Hythloday: “spoken with nonsense”, invites us to be political philosophy - Private property sceptical to Raphael’s argumentation (originally in Latin) - Theft and corporal punishment - Humanism: becoming a master of language (Petrarch), - Authority in intellect language is a way to influence and action - Humanism - Death V. rehabilitation: society has to take responsibility for theft - War: in Europe is for monarchal gain; in Utopia is to assassinate the opposite leader for minimal deaths - Raphael as a counsellor: compared to being “enslaved” as the court is so corrupt that no one would listen to him, they all just want to flatter/please the monarch - More thinks Raphael is being idealistic through academic philosophy: looks at idealism and realistic compromise (moral stance on accommodating your message to your audience) - Individualism in Utopia: clothes all the same, no separated family unit, everyone does all jobs - Age is valued for wisdom; women are still below men; slave aren’t part of Utopia but Utopia relies on them; scholars exempted from manual labour - Anyone can be in the higher class: all about ability - Separation: change house every 10yrs; people with similar abilities live together, in this way they can’t separate themselves as much by ability/personality - Schedule: strict, never private, idea of ancestors. They don’t get an inner life - Surveillance (panopticon): ancestors, busy schedules, church and family units - Oppression: things that have a positive attribute but also a negative aspect are glossed over by Raphael - Slave: a place of social distinction that doesn’t fit the Utopian mindset - The slaves kill the animals because it is said to “harden” people - Mercenaries: Utopians care about the dollar so they can do business with non-Utopians; Utopians exploit people who only care about money (there is also no rehabilitation) - Utopians use slaves, assassins, etc. as scapegoats so that - they don’t have to do anything that is unappealing For their society to continue they disregard their own values for non-Utopians (hypocrisy in morality) - Marriage (looking a each other naked): compared to buying a horse; uses an economic analogy and dehumanizes the person. Has an economic value V. relational aspect find more resources at find more resources at - True and False Values: pleasure of the mind not body - Reflecting on a life well lived, practicing virtues - Authenticity: things that are not authentic are not truly valuable (ex. clothes are only valued according to arbitrary temporary fashions) - Social conventions give false value: it is not the thing that matters but the way we think about the thing - Gold V. iron which is more useful: Utopia uses gold to make toilets or chains for slaves in order to devalue it - Pride stops Europe from being like Utopia: people like to have what others don’t - You’re not enjoying it then, it’s just spiteful: Utopia is set to change human tendency towards pride - Utopia still has pride: utopians v. non-utopians, community garden competitions, scholars v. normals - The society hinges on the exclusion of others - - Philip Sidney Astrophil and Stella: Poetry: defensive, Sonnets often about love but also Line 1: expresses genuine love but uses the word “fain”= “Sonnet 1” Petrarchan (14 the difficulty of loving so deeply “feign” as in ‘constructed’ lines) - Metaphors express woman’s - Defensive poetry: history doesn’t make you a better person; beauty philosophy is boring; poetry teaches and delights - Cliche over time - Line 8: “grace” could be something God-given or sexual - Inexperience with love: entails two - Stanza 2: life giving image (water drips from trees); positive extremes such as “joy” but aspects of study “despair” - Stanza 3: Astrophil gets caught up in others’ thinking; calls - Beauty: isn’t just lustful but brings his writing “invention”, study is discouraging poetry - a man to higher things (godly) Stanza 4: last 2 lines begin with stressed syllables, forced - Woman: represents spiritual sounds mirror forced content ideals and virtue embodied in - Final message: forget study, look to your heart to write beauty - Cliche: “look in your heart” and the “Muse” - Astrophil: has carnal desires, - Shows the inescapability of convention shows the short-comings of such a man Astrophil and Stella: - Architectural image of Stella: describes her face as a castle “Sonnet 9” - Line 1: overly conventional poetry - Stella’s face described as stone: alabaster, pearl, marble - Poem forces us to see the material as something literal; a woman has turned into a hard/rigid castle (fortress-like) - Petrarchan cliche: alabaster neck - Line 5-6: reference to fortress “door” and “lock” - Eyes are windows: suprieority; she looks over the world and doesn’t she anything she likes - Message: poetry blocks people out - Poetic conventions are so great that you lose sight of the real person find more resources at find more resources at Astrophil and Stella: - Distinction between art and reality; fiction and reality “Sonnet 45” - Line 1-2: paradox of “woe” (reality) conveyed through creation “painted” - She doesn’t care that he’s miserable but cries over fictional characters - We are more moved by fictions than reality: Astrophil wants to exploit this (asks Stella to think of him as a fictional tragedy) - Message: reality is less effective than art - Reversal from Sonnet 1 William Sonnet 1 Poetry - Cynical tone; bleak and ark - Subject: the problem of passing time; time lays waste to Shakespeare - Approach to romantic love it beautiful and valuable things distorted; Petrarchan sonnet is mocked - Quatrain 1: hold onto beauty through reproduction; children - Majority of poems are addressed carry the legacy/memory of their predecessors to a man; the lady has dark hair/ - “Creatures” and “increase”: assonance and alliteration; - complexion (opposite of “fair”) - logical link, it is built in creatures to increase Sounds of words contribute to “Tender”: connection between vulnerability of the child and meaning parental feelings for the child - Having a child: natural and emotional process - Message: natural/inevitable order of things - Quatrain 2: man defies natural order; devoted to himself at others’ expense - Contracted: gets smaller; contracted to himself - Narcissism: diminishes the self - Self-substantial: burns through his own fuel - Lots of opposites: this man’s life is unnatural; “self” and “foe” - Quatrain 3: stress on “now”; impermanence of beauty - Plant life image: bud is associated with death - The pun: by refusing marriage he buries his qualities that won’t live on in his offspring - Self-sabotage: man destroys himself and his own happiness find more resources at - find more resources at Sonnet 29 1st half of poem: in a state of anger and jealousy - All he sees are things to compare himself with; calls to the heavens but gets no answer - Agitated rhythm: commas make it choppy and gives tone of turmoil - Baks in self-pity - Shift to self-transcendence: thoughts turn outwards, hinges on love for another - - “Haply”: a possibility; associated with happiness Line 10: troche; a shift to something new - “th”: sound of the mouth associated with upward movement; uplifting of his spirits as he sees a Lark - Message: the wealth that he feels as a result of love he wouldn’t exchange for the material wealth of kings - “stage”: a condition of mind V. the King sitting on a throne Sonnet 87 - Poem about love and economic - Dull sounds; not much change in expression of mood or value: sense of value and worth tone - Delusions - Love: logic is economic; legal and economic language is used - Lover’s and speaker’s worth is mismatched because their - values are different: values measured in economic quantity “Dear”: term of affection used as possession - Speaker’s sense of worth is low: he expects to be thrown away once his lover realizes their difference in value - “gift”: defines the logic when they are supposed to be able defying the logic of economics - Uses King’s wealth as image for love - “matter”: logic of materialism - Speaker not in a fantasy: contrast between sleeping and waking, dreaming and reality Sonnet 129 - Poem about lust V. love
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